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According To The Mayo Clinic

According to the Mayo Clinic, Bipolar disorder, formerly called manic depression, causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. Then, at some point, this great mood can turn into something darker. Lahey defines mania as a disturbance of mood that can be quite enjoyable to the individual in the short run but is usually damaging both the person and others in the long run. They begin to feel irritated, confused, angry, and trapped. Mood shifts may be only a few times a year or as often as several times a week. Although bipolar disorder is a disruptive, long-term condition, you can keep your moods in check by following a treatment plan. In most cases, bipolar disorder can be controlled with medications and psychological counseling (psychotherapy). Then, at some point, this great mood can turn into something darker. They begin to feel irritated, confused, angry, and trapped.

According to the DSM V, the elevated mood is significant and is known as mania or hypomania depending on the severity or whether there is psychosis. During mania an individual feels or acts abnormally happy, energetic, or irritable. People have multiple episodes of depression. During these episodes people experience feelings of sadness, tearfulness, emptiness or hopelessness and angry outbursts, irritability or frustration, even over small matters. Sleep is usually disturbed. They either sleep too much or have insomnia. They lack energy, even for the smallest of tasks. People with bipolar depression, usually experiences Loss of interest in most normal activities like sex and/or hobbies. A change in appetite is also affected. The persons weight often fluctuates. Feelings of worthlessness or guilty about old things and things that they were not responsible for. The biggest sign of bipolar disorder is the frequent thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts or suicide. For many people with depression, symptoms usually are severe enough to cause noticeable problems in everyday activities, such as work, school or relationships with others. Other people may feel generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why.

The cause of bipolar is unknown. There are factors that are linked to bipolar disorder.

Bipolar disorder tends to run in families. Some research has suggested that people with certain genes are more likely to develop bipolar disorder than others. Children with a parent or sibling who has bipolar disorder are much more likely to develop the illness, compared with children who do not have a family history of bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is more common in people who have a first relative, like a sibling or parent, with the disorder. Chronic stress and death of a loved is also a factor to bipolar disorder. Stressful life events can trigger bipolar disorder in someone with a genetic vulnerability. These events tend to involve drastic or sudden changes—either good or bad—such as getting married, going away to college, losing a loved one, getting fired, or moving. Substance abuse is also a trigger. While substance abuse doesn’t cause bipolar disorder, it can bring on an episode and worsen the course of the disease. Drugs such as cocaine, ecstasy, and amphetamines can trigger mania, while alcohol and tranquilizers can trigger depression. Season changes also affect episodes. Episodes are more common during the summer, and depressive episodes more common during the fall, winter, and spring. Also loss of sleep can trigger an episode of mania. (nimh.nih.gov)

According to Lahey, mania as a disturbance of mood that can be quite enjoyable to the individual in the short run but is usually damaging both the person and others in the long run. Even when mood swings are not as severe, the illness is still present. For example, someone with bipolar disorder may experience hypomania, which is a less severe form of mania. When they experience hypomanic episode, they are functioning, they feel good, and are productive. Families and friends tend to notice their mood swings while they think that everything is normal and ok. If not treated, hypomania my turn to severe depression or mania.

Some symptoms of bipolar disorder are mood changes. A long period of feeling overly happy or outgoing mood then a long period of feeling sad or hopeless. Those with bipolar disorder also experience extreme irritability. They feel tired or slowed down. They experience a change in eating, sleeping, or other habits. More commonly thoughts of death or suicide, or attempting suicide are present in people with bipolar disorder.

Bipolar disorder may also be present in a mixed state, in which you might experience both mania and depression at the same time. During a mixed state, you might feel very agitated, have trouble sleeping, experience major changes in appetite, and have suicidal thoughts. People in a mixed state may feel very sad or hopeless while at the same time feel extremely energized. (nimh.nih.gov)

Sometimes, a person with severe episodes of mania or depression has psychotic symptoms too, such as hallucinations or delusions. The psychotic symptoms tend to reflect the person’s extreme mood. For example, if you are having psychotic symptoms during a manic episode, you may believe you are a famous person, have a lot of money, or have special powers. If you are having psychotic symptoms during a depressive episode, you may believe you are ruined and penniless, or you have committed a crime. As a result, people with bipolar disorder who have psychotic symptoms are sometimes misdiagnosed with schizophrenia. (nimh.nih.gov)

People with bipolar disorder sometimes abuse alcohol and/ or drugs. Bipolar disorder also causes problems in relationship and causes you to perform poorly in school or at work. It may be difficult to recognize these problems as signs of a major mental illness. Bipolar disorder is usually illness that last lifetime however episodes of depression and mania usually come back over time. When people with bipolar disorder have are not experiencing episodes, they are free of symptoms, but some people may have lingering symptoms.

If you have bipolar disorder, you may also have another health condition that’s diagnosed before or after you find out you have bipolar disorder. Those conditions need to be treated because they may worsen or cause treatment not to work. One disorder is Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). According to White, ADHD has symptoms that are similar and overlap with bipolar disorder. For this reason, bipolar disorder and ADHD can be confused with one another. Sometimes one is mistaken for the other. In some cases, a person may be diagnosed with both conditions. Addiction or substance abuse is another factor. Many people with bipolar disorder also have alcohol, tobacco or drug problems. Drugs or alcohol may seem to ease symptoms, but they can actually trigger, make depression worse. (Psychology. 4th ed.)

When a person believes they are bipolar, they should visit a doctor to be diagnosed. Bipolar disorder can be treated and maintained, but it is a lifelong disorder. Treatment must be maintained to avoid a relapse. The initial treatment is to start taking medicine to balance your moods. Next is continued treatment. Bipolar disorder requires lifelong treatment, even during periods when you feel better. Maintenance treatment is used to manage bipolar disorder on a long-term basis. People who skip maintenance treatment are at high risk of a relapse of symptoms or having minor mood changes turn into full-blown mania or depression. Day treatment may be recommended. Day treatment help because it helps you get counseling and support. Those who have Drug and alcohol problems can get substance abuse treatment. Drugs and alcohol make bipolar even more difficult to deal with. Lastly hospitalization. Your doctor may recommend hospitalization if you’re behaving dangerously or you feel suicidal or you become detached from reality which is known as psychotic. Getting psychiatric treatment at a hospital can help keep you calm and safe and in a stable mood, whether you’re having a manic or major depressive episode.

In conclusion, Bipolar disorder, formerly called manic depression, causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. Then, at some point, this great mood can turn into something darker. They begin to feel irritated, confused, angry, and trapped. People have multiple episodes of depression. During these episodes people experience feelings of sadness, tearfulness, emptiness or hopelessness and angry outbursts, irritability or frustration, even over small matters. The biggest sign of bipolar disorder is the frequent thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts or suicide. The cause of bipolar is unknown. . An imbalance in brain chemicals called neurotransmitters play a big role in bipolar disorder and other mood disorders. Young adults in their early 20s are at a higher risk. According to White, ADHD has symptoms that are similar and overlap with bipolar disorder. For this reason, bipolar disorder and ADHD can be confused with one another. Sometimes one is mistaken for the other. Treatment must be maintained to avoid a relapse. The initial treatment is to start taking medicine to balance your moods. Next is continued treatment. Bipolar disorder requires lifelong treatment, even during periods when you feel better. Your doctor may recommend hospitalization if you’re behaving dangerously or you feel suicidal or you become detached from reality which is known as psychotic. Getting psychiatric treatment at a hospital can help keep you calm and safe and in a stable mood, whether you’re having manic or major depressive episode.