Chapter 1 Introduction
This chapter will cover the research background explains the independent variables which are training method, delivery style and selection of trainer, while dependent variable is employee productivity. Next will cover the problem statement that explains the issue of the topic and then focus on the objectives and also the research questions in order to complete the study. Basically this study is performed to investigate the impact of Training and Development on Employees Productivity: A Case of Employees at Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO) Negeri Sembilan.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Human resources have played a significant role in economic development in most developed countries (Armstrong, 2009). Develop countries such Malaysia can adopt these lesson to grow and boost up their country. According to Armstrong (2009), training is systematic process through which an organization’s human resource department able to gain knowledge and develop skills. It can be create by giving out direction and practical activities that will bring about enhanced corporate performance. Other than that, all the training component such the preparation needs, setting up the preparation design, determining the preparation targets, and ultimately outline the suitable preparing program must be access by human asset individual in such office in the organization with a specific end goal to get effective training program. (Nickson, 2007).
The main purpose of training and development is to improve employees competencies, so that, organization must maximize efficiency and effectiveness of their human assets. Armstrong (2009), organization must ensure that training and development could benefit the whole organization by winning the ‘ heart and mind of ‘ employees to get them to identify and remain with the organization. A clear understanding of its direct impact on employee productivity is one of important of traning. An improvement in the organization’s performance is because of an improvement in employee productivity (Jehanzeb and Beshir , 2013).
Type of training method that will adpat by manager and trainers in training progaram must be decide and choose properly (Nickson 2007). One of the sort in training technique, for example, on-the ‘job training will be talked about additional in following chapter. Diverse training strategy utilized as a part of such training system will influence the training result toward the finish of the time of training programmed. So that, it crucial to the organization to have an effective design in training programs. This is because to make sure all the trainees able to adapt and understand the training provided by the organization.
Selection of trainers and delivery styles are also the essential elements in the part of training and development because employees are very conscious about it(Nickson 2007). Thus, it is essential for organization to hire a qualified and experienced trainer . At that point, the trainer has to make sure that he or she are able to engage with its audience during the training session and all the trainees are understand the objective of the training program.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Public sectors activities are related to direct and indirect service to customer. In public sector, employee productivity found far more important compared to other sector and industry. Unfortunately, public sector, private sector and international sector are not recognizing the importance of training in order to increase their employee’s productivity (Kassim and Mokhber, 2015). This will lead to the slowdown of economic profit and many organizations will first seek to cuts in their training budgets (Kassim and Mokhber, 2015).
According to Kassim and Mokhber 2015) Malaysian Public Sector employees will play a significant role in the sustainability development of Malaysia. Public sector is the major employer in managing the labor force in Malaysia with 1.4 million workforces in which the emolument budget is 24 percent (RM 63 billion) of Malaysia total budget expenditure (RM 264.2 billion) in year 2014. Without proper management of this workforce, it will lead to lower employee’s productivity of public sector (Kassim and Mokhber, 2015). It will impact absolutely in negative way towards the development of the nation since public sector is the key service provider to the private sector.
Evans and Lindsay (1999), proved a positive link between training and employee performance, as training brings benefits for the employee along with for the firm by positively impacting employee performance through the enhancement of employee’s competencies and behavior. Moreover, each employees that does not satisfy and uncomfortable in their workplace will directly affect their work productivity and become demotivated. The effect is, the overall productivity level will be drop because the employees experinced or feel stressful and depressed on doing their daily work activity (Evans and Lindsay, 1999).
For example, in public sector such Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO), employees that work and dealing with customers will always face stressful because of customers attitude. Therefore, training and development should be provided by organization in order to increase employee’s productivity.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to fulfil the objectives of this research, there are question that important to find the answer for, which are:
a) Is there any relationship between training and development with employees productivity?
b) What is the most influence factor that affect the employees productivity?
1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
Based on the research questions above, the purpose of this research study is listed as below:
a) To determine the relationship between training and development with employees productivity in Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO) Negeri Sembilan.
b) To determine the most influence factor that affect the employees productivity in Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO) Negeri Sembilan.
1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of study for this research covers all the employees of Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO) Negeri Sembilan. The research was conducted to study on the impact of training and development on employees productivity : A case of employees at Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO) Negeri Sembilan. Therefore, this study will focus on 120 respondents of staffs Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO) Negeri Sembilan which is from Kuala Pilah and Seremban branch. In order to obtain data of the information, the questionnaires have been distributed among employees.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
In this research, aim of the study is impact of training and development provided by organization towards employee productivity in Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosio (PERKESO). The purpose of this study is to help organization to have a better understanding to use it as a guide or information to increase the employee productivity regarding on the impact of training and development. The employees who have high skills after training can help the organization to deliver high levels of reputation. The organization will understand more about their employees’ attitudes when this research has been made. . By completing this research, it is not only Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO) should have a better view on how important of the employee productivity but also for others sector and organization should have their own set of training and development programmed.
The training method, selection of trainers and delivery styles provided by organization may have a significant impact towards employee productivity. Training helps the employee to achieve job satisfaction where they can contribute to organizational success. The employees also can increase their skills and knowledge they acquire during training. Other than that, training can improves efficiency and productivity of employees. The researchers want to assist future researchers by providing useful information. Hence, it will make the process of researching easier to obtain information to them.
1.7 LIMITATION OF STUDY
1.7.1 Time Constraint
The time given to finish the research is constrained where it additionally restrains the capacity of the researcher to do a good quality research. Other than that, with restricted time and some data required are difficult to acquire, the researcher may get a few aides from other individuals and refer to other resources so that they ready to finish it on time.
1.7.2 Cooperation from respondents
It is entirely extreme and difficult to acquire collaboration from the respondents to answer the surveys given. This is because majority the Enforcement Executive in (PERKESO) always outstation to meet client and to do investigation This is where some of them will refuse from answering the survey while others will essentially answering it without comprehension the inquiry. The outcomes acquire might be conflicting and questionable information.
1.7.3 Lack of experience
In this research, absence of experience or maybe no involvement in leading research will be the confinement for the researcher to finish their research. There is some data that not has by researcher and consequently requires helps from other individuals.
From this chapter, it can be concluded that before starting the research, the researcher must know what research is. This chapter provided an overview of this research which the entire problem encountered; research objectives as well as research questions, and significance of study are established in this chapter which has contributes a preliminary understanding of how a research is established to meet the research objectives and to figure out the problem from the research background. In order to have a better understanding, Chapter 2 will be carried out further review and discussion of the topic in order to provide a review of literature relevant to this study. Chapter 2 Literature review
According to Umar Sekaran (2007), literature review can be identified as documentation that relevant studies citing the author and the year of the study. This chapter examines the literature review where extracts from other literature sources are discussed to address the topic of Impact of Training and Development on Employee Productivity: A Case of Employees at Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO) Negeri Sembilan.
In this chapter, it wills reviews literature for the study. It discusses the dependent variable, independent variable and the theoretical framework.The independent variable is the concept training and development which is method, selection of trainer and delivery style. The dependent variable is the concept of employee’s productivity. Lastly is the combination of the concept of training and development and employee’s productivity
2.1 DEPENDANT VARIABLES
Employee is the major element of every organization where their success and failure is based on their productivity (Hameed,2011). Sigh & Mohanty (2002), employee productivity is the way the organization measures the ability of worker by utilizing their general deals as contrasting with the organizational performance. Efficiency is the level of result where workers can contribute their best push to accomplish the organizational objectives.
Profitability can be comprehend as how an organization can utilize the accessible assets to maximize their performance and enhance general productivity .It implied how well an organization changes over their info assets. It meant how well an organization converts their input resources such as labours, materials, equipment and many more into goods and services (Hameed & Shehla, 2009).
Employee productivity act as dependent variable is comprehensively utilized in organizational and industrial psychology (Kahya,2009). Employee productivity is critical part of organization, so the organization should concentrate on factors which enhance the efficiency of employee (Abba and Yaqoob,2009).
Employee achievement and disappointment is relies upon employee productivity since it was vital part of organization (Hameed and Waheed,2011). Sigh & Mohanty (2002), employee competitive level can be improve through employees productivity. Though, measure of work productivity can be influenced by the fulfillment of worker towards the organization. For cases, their fulfillment level increment when the assumptions with respect to on the training and development given by the organization was accomplished. Along these lines, employee’s profitability can be decidedly effect to the organization.
There has been a lot of research to support the fact that employee productivity can be improve through training by building a sense of teamwork among employees (Jane n.d ). According to Smith, employees productivity also can be enhance when organization started to spend in improving the knowledge and ability of its employees’s through training.
Employees can defeat any problem identified with the organization effectively with better organizational learning.Therefore employee should make use of the training and development provided by the organization. Consequently, common comprehension between the workplaces among employees including with the best administration are shared among each other in such organization. (Tahir, Yousafzai, Jan, & Hashim, 2014).
2.2 INDEPENDENT VARIABLES
2.2.1 Training and Development
(Niazi, 2011) said that ‘The Official and constant learning activities within an organization intended to improve the performance of employees’. Researcher also said that, training and development is the procedure of convey knowledge, skills and abilities to such specific activity. Training and development was the most valuable instruments to close the gap between organization’s present performance and future expected performance.
Training and development is the most important factor towards the growth and success of a business .Through training and development programed, employees and organizational effectiveness and efficiency can be increased (Niazi,2011). The requirement for an organization to sort out a training and development program is on the grounds that it affects organization’s return on investment and organization performance has an direct relationship with employee performance or productivity.
Training and development is useful for both employee and organization in long term (Khan, Khan & Khan, 2011). Rohan and Madhumita (2012), enhancing the workforce of performance and increase the worth of organization is an important tools in training. Employee is considered as the major element of every organization, because their success and failure mainly based on their perforamance (Hameed,2011). In order to have an effective training for the employees, human resource has to choose the right type of training to ensure the employee possess the required skilled.
2.2.2 Training Method
Training can help an employee to undertand about what they are doing currently and hence change their attitude toward their job. This may help them to improve their knowledge, skils, abilties and their attitude towards the organization. According to Khanfar (2014) training will give an impact to the employee productivity in public sector . So as to get higher fulfillment by client thus to build the income and improve the organization’s esteem and prevalence, the employees should dependably be in the know regarding changes (Khanfar, 2014).
Employees can enhance their chance to being promote and profitablity to get higher pay because of good performance (Khanfar, 2014). Employee can improve their chances to being promote and probability to get higher salary due to good performance. So, the organization must focus on such training and development programmed in order to achieve their employees target.
Good performance by employee are comes from the program and workshop that employees have been attend (Evvertsson,2004). Therefore, employee will have a tendency to have more enthusiasm to go to the training program given by organization. Employees who attend to training that given by organization will get higher earning as compare with the individuals who do not take an interest in any training program (Evertsson, 2004).
The training method plays a very important role to makes employee realize that the objective and importance of training. According to Evertsson (2004), proper and effective training method may help an employee to improve their skills and knowledge of their job. Organization also must identify the training needs and which method that will be best fit to the organization before choosing who the trainers should be as well as period and place for training (Evertsson, 2004).
According to Alipour (2009), training method that trainer implement that motivate the trainee will makes the training program be more effective. It must motivates the trainee to improve his or her performance by clearly demonstrate desired skill and encourage positive transfer from training to the job (ALipour,2009). So, it is important to organization to choose the training method that relevant to their developmental needs. Training method that will be disscussed more in thid research is on the job training.
18.104.22.168 On-the-job Training
On-the-job training is essentially a one of the most widely recognized and teaining strategies out in public sector such PERKESO on the grounds that it is uncomplicated and minimal effort to work and it is adequately in enhancing organizational operational productivity. Fundamentally, mentors will instruct and directs learners physically and exclusively by clarifying the obligations and the trainees are allowed to ask whatever inquiries they wish to in regards to their occupation scope in such organization.
Employee need to learn and observes how other people will do the particular job (Alipour,2009). Employees need to learn how to do the job of other department under the same organization. The reason for job rotation is to lessen employees boredom towards a similar sort of occupation regular and to build their flexibility to various sort of circumstance. As indicated by Laing (2009), job rotation can help organization to investigate the potential employees and help them to enhanced their abilities. Employees who required in job rotation can comprehend what is the regular practices and work culture in various office hence can enhances their capacities to do distinctive sort of job (Laing,2009)
It is fundamental for an organization to complete on the job training when there are diverse sorts of employees who has been assembled together to play out a particular assignment which they are not comfortable with that employment (Alipour,2009). It is very important for a organization to carry out this training especially in public sector otherwise they will not able to understand the proper procedure to do work in different department.
Alipour (2009), there is significant relationship between training and productivity growth when the employees take an interest in on the job training in light of the fact that it will have a tendency to have higher chance to expand their compensation consequently. On the job training capable the organization to discover the potential employees who have higher capacity to work and ready to mastermind their worker as indicated by their employee according to their work ability and specific skills.
2.2.3 Selection of Trainers
Employees’s productivity is the main concern for an organization since it leads to the overall organization’s profitability (Sahinidis & Bouris, 2008). Employees tend to be more committed and take more initiative to participate training program that provided by the organization when they accepted who are the trainer (Sahinidis & Bouris, 2008). Other than that, employee also will remain loyal to the organization and perform well in their job when they have experienced good training and development programed in the organization.
The selection of the trainers in the training and development are having major impact to the employee’s productivity. Before the human resource departmental personnel proceed to the process of selecting the trainers for the training program, the organizations must ensure which the best type of training programs or method that will be implemented by the organization (Brum,2007). Researcher additionally expressed that the trainer represent to the organization, so they should demonstrate the great way of skill and do the training relies upon trainee needs and wants (Brum, 2007).
Adequate skill and knowledge with higher capability are the most critical part in choosing a good trainer (Pochanajun and Khemarangsan, n.d.). This is on the grounds that when the trainer have top to bottom information and experienced, they can exchange their insight and abilities to the learners effectively with any sort of circumstance. So, the outcome, organization’s will accomplish desired targets.
In addition, empathy can be classified as the level of sensitivity on how the participant feels about the learning situation (Lam, Kolomitro & Alamparambil, 2011). So,researcher said that it is important to the organization when selects the trainers for their training and development program. Organization should consider the level of empathy of the trainers.
As previous resercher siad, the attitudes of the employees towards customer are important because it will directly influence the organization’s profitability especially in public sector such Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO), (Lam, Kolomitro & Alamparambil, 2011). Subsequently, proper trainer with a good state of mind ought to be chosen for the training especially for current very skill condition. Hence, this will be one of the elements that the organization ought to be consider while choosing a qualified trainer or mentors.
In conclusion, before the organization or human asset division select the trainers to every office, they ought to see well and profoundly about the trainer’s capacities and specialist as indicated by various departmental needs. Hence, selecting good trainers are important for the organization. This will helps the employees having a great training knowledge and in this manner enhance employee’s efficiency..
2.2.4 Delivery Styles
Delivery style is important part of Training and Development (Carlos,1995). Training and development programme that provided by organization to employee should be addressed well as it can deliver better service. As Armststrong (2000) said employees are very conscious about delivery style. A well delivery style is necessary for an organization because a delivery style by the organization must based on the needs and wants of the employees. Thus, organization ready to get positive outcome from the training and development. In this manner, most likely delivering style assumes a critical part along the employees training programs including the organizational performance (Tahir, Yousafzai, Jan, & Hashim, 2014).
According to Mark (2000), if someone is not delivering the training with impressive style, then it can be means as wasting the time. It will be wasting the time when we deliver training that not ready to get worker’s advantage and consideration .So, the trainer’s delivering style can straightforwardly or by indirectly influences employee enthusiasm along the training and development programs. Training and development can enhance the general employees work execution inside the organization. So with that performance, organization ready to compete with others when they build up a compelling training program for their employees. (Khan, Khan, & Khan, 2011).
The training and development was adapted by organization as an instrument for making and including the competitive advantage for the entire association (Algharibeh, Almsafir, and Alias, 2014). There are four type of delivery style in deliver training and development program which is includes involving, facilitating, selling and telling. Every trainer will have their own favored delivery styles that he or she more expertise. So, the delivery style that receive by the trainer can impact the effective of preparing. As Phillip (2005) said that it is necessary for trainer to engage with its audience during training session. The needs of employee in the training and development programmes should be analysed first by the organization before sending to them to training program (Algharibeh, Almsafir, & Alias, 2014).
There are a few delivery styles of training and development provided by organization. For examples, classroom training, one-to-one tutorial, lecture or talks, and so on. The delivery styles are designed accurately according to a few factors such as the number of employees or the group size (Pochanajun & Khemarangsan, n.d.).
Classroom training with instructor is one types of the delivery styles which the organization can adopt whereby the trainees are attend training together with an instructor. The instructor will provide and presents material and classroom training with instructor can be considered one of the most effective for learning from the training as it was rated highest effective delivery styles than any other methods (Pochanajun & Khemarangsan, n.d.).
One to one tutorial was carried out by one instructor, the instructor will provide his individual instruction to only one trainee regarding on the performance or development areas. The length of this training’s delivery style is not too long because there is small group or limited number of participants involves which mainly there is only one instructor for each participant . This kind of delivery style of training giving are considered as the second best preparing for the learner because of it is related with the cooperative energy of the members required along the preparation. (Pochanajun & Khemarangsan, n.d.).
Lecture or talks can on a specific point with limited interaction and practice among the trainer and trainee .The substance of the training was very much recorded arranged and present it on one time. The communication between trainer and trainee is vital to meet the targets of the training and development given by organization. Dialects utilized along the training and development exercises must be understand on the grounds that it will give impacts towards the comprehension of employees regarding on the training. (Pochanajun & Khemarangsan, n.d.).
2.3 Relationship Between Training and Development with Employees Productivity
Training and development play a crucial role in human resource management because it helps to improve skills of employees that will increases employee productivity (Guest, 1997). Training and development was expected to improved employee productivity (Elangovan and Karakowsky, 1999). Training is organized in order to acquire efficient performance in single or multiple activities (K. Z. Ahmad & Bakar, 2003). Employees should be fully involved in training programs and there must be a relation between employee and company (McConnell, 2004).
Development is procedure of get ready and arranging employees for the future employments and up and coming issues (Kadiresan et al., 2015). As indicated by Stavrou (2004), the principle challenge for troughs of human asset in 21st century will be training and development .Other than that, training and development is a procedure of expanding the performance of employees and in addition adjusted their behavior (Naris and Ukpere, 2009). Training and development likewise causes organizations to adjust to new innovation by expanded productivity of employees (Kennedy,2009).
Kum and Cowen (2014) said, all employees should be given training as they need training only, then the training can be launched properly. Training and development programs always gives employees chance to learn something new and become creative to stay ahead of competitors. Kulkarni (2013) also said that training and development helps in improving old skills and enhancing the current skills of employees. Training and development programs should also be monitored by the organizations, as they are investing huge amounts on these programs.
Gamage and Imbulana (2013) highly skilled, motivated and boosted morale workforce will be created if the organizations conduct training and development programs and follow them. Training is used to get distinguish place among rivals in the competition (Jehanzeb & Bashir, 2013). Training likewise will limit the distinction between current performance of employees and the performance of organization (Elnaga and Imran, 2013). All around prepared and created employees will confront less or no issues in performing tasks or occupations relegated to them by administration as contrast with employees who do not have adequate training.
Work practice is changing on continuous basis, so if the employees are not given satisfactory information, they will not get the chances of learning of new things (Imran and Tanveer, 2015). Administration do not completely sure that the cash they are putting resources into training projects will be advantage to them (Cheramie et al., 2007). While, administrators now begun to put resources into training and development program since they perceived the significance of decreasing the contrast between current skilla and the skills required to adapt to evolving innovation (Mansour,2013).
2.4 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Figure 2.1 : Framework of Training and Development toward Employee Productivity
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLES
Source: Raja Abdul Ghafoor Khan, Furqan Ahmed Khan, Dr. Muhammad Aslam Khan
In this research, the dependent variable is employee productivity. At the same time, training method, selection of trainers and delivery styles will be the independent variables of our study.
H0: There is no relationship between training method and employee productivity.
H1: There is a relationship between training method and employee productivity.
H0: There is no relationship between selection of trainers and employee productivity.
H1: There is a relationship between selection of trainers and employee productivity.
H0: There is no relationship between delivery styles and employee productivity.
H1: There is a relationship between delivery styles and employee productivity.
The review of previous research has contributed in developing better understanding in the field of employee’s productivity. As it was discussed in the literature review, employee’s productivity can be influenced by many factors such as training method, selection of trainer and delivery style. In the next chapter, the research methodology is presented. Chapter 3 Research methodology
This chapter discussed the method that will be used for this study. The methodology includes research design, population for the study, sampling procedure, research instrument, data collection and data analysis procedure. The questionnaires that conducted in English language were based on the research objectives and purpose that is to study the impact of training and development on employee productivity in the case of Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO) Employees in Negeri Sembilan. The questionnaire is simple and easy understandble to respondent. The format used is likert scale.
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
According to Sekaran and Bougie (2013), a research design is a blueprint or plan for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data, based on the research questions of the study. The purpose of this research is descriptive correlational study because researcher has more than one independent variable (IV) and one dependent variable (DV). Next, the study setting is a non-contrived setting which is natural environment and it involves field study because researcher does not control the respondents as the researcher distributed questionnaire to staffs for them to fill up. As for the time horizon, it is cross-sectional or one shot because researcher collect data only once.
For the population, researcher use all staffs in Pejabat PERKESO Kuala Pilah and Seremban and distribute the questionnaires to 120 staffs as the sample size in the month of April 2017.This study is descriptive survey because it adopted the use of questionnaire. The unit of analysis is individual because the focus is on the staffs individually. It is a non-probability sampling which is convenience because not all staffs have equal chance of being selected.
3.2 DATA COLLECTION METHOD
Data collection method explained on what method that have been used by researcher in conducted the research. The researcher has used two type of method which are primarr and secondary data.
3.2.1 Primary Data
Primary data is the data that obtained first hand by the researcher for the specific purpse of study. The researcher used the questionnire method to gather the data about the training and development on employee productivity. Primary sources of data include administer of questionnaire that used likert scale which consist of five categories. The categories are from strongly disagree to strongly agree.
3.2.2 Secondary Data
Secondary data is the information that gathered from the sources that already existing. The data are easily to acces and inexpensive. There are two sources that have been used in thius study which are journal article and websites
3.3 TARGET POPULATION
The target populations of this study is in public sector and specify the target toward employee in PERKESO area Negeri Sembilan. The target respondent will be all employee in all department in PERKESO which is 120 employees.
This part is summary about the whole population and a part of a population should be used in the sampling procedure. Population is an adding up of all the organization of the same and attribute within the group where resercher wishes to investigate (Sekaran & Bougie,2010). Sampling also can helps to save resources such as time and money t conduct the reserch. This is because, it will difficult and costly to conduct a survey using whole population.
3.4.1 Sampling Frame
Sampling frame as working population represent a pool of target sample will be carry out to involve in the survey questionnaire from the whole target population (Sekaran & Bougie,2010). I have decided on 2 branch of PERKESO office in Negeri Sembilan which is in Kuala Pilah and Seremban.
3.4.2 Sampling Technique
Probability sampling and non-probability sampling are the two types of sampling design. Probability sampling is a type of sampling technique where the number of population is known. In addition, non-probability sampling is the pool of respondent from a target population being chosen is unknown. The sampling technique that used in this research is non-probability sampling. Four types of sampling technique under non-probability sampling are convenience sampling, judgment sampling, quota sampling and snowball sampling. I adopted convenience sampling in this research .Convenience sampling is a simple approach where a sample is selected according to convenience of the researcher. This convenience may be in respect of availability of data, accessibility of the element.
3.4.3 Sampling Size
I have distributed 120 sets of questionnaire to all employees in PERKESO Kuala Pilah and Seremban. The sample sizes for this research are 35 respondents from PERKESO Kuala Pilah and 85 respondent from PERKESO Seremban.
3.5 DATA ANALYSIS
Data collected using the questionnaires were edited for clarity and then frequency tables were drawn to show the initial results using Statistical Package for Social scientist (SPSS) software. The SPSS used to analyse the information gathered which was used in development of charts and graphs.
3.6 QUESTIONNAIRE DEVELOPMENT
A questionnaire is designed for the survey purposes of this research. The questionnaire is formed through the adaptation of questionnaire from journals by other researcher. Questionnaire was developing by closing-ended or structured question in order to help simplify the procedure of analysing the data collected through our respondents.
The survey questionnaire is split into Section A, B and C and includes a total of 24 questions. Section A consists of seven (4) questions. This section was designed with nominal and ordinal scale and for the purpose of obtaining the demographic profile of the respondents. The demographic questions are gender, age, educational level, income level and service length.
Section B and C are designed for the purpose of testing the relationships of the independent and dependant variables. Five point Likert Scales are used in Section B and C, where the respondents can choose from five alternatives, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree, where 1 indicates Strongly Disagree (SD), 2 indicates Disagre (D),3 indicates Neutral (N), 4 indicates Agree (A) and 5 indicates Strongly Agree (SA).
15 questions in Section B and 4 questions in Section C. Section B divided into 3 parts. The three variables that are tested in this research include training method, selection of trainers and delivery styles. This section is designed to obtain the required information to examine the relationship among each variable while section C is used to measure the dependent variable, which is the employee productivity.
This chapter has discussed about method that will be used for this research. This chapter discussed how data will be interpreted into particular software and to obtain the value of information. This chapter also discussed about research design, instrument development, sampling design and population, sampling technique, sample size, data collection and data analysis. The researcher will analysed the data gathered from the questionnaires using the SPSS (Statistic Package for Social Science) system and from there the result will be computed. The next chapter will be covered on the data analysis in details. Chapter 4
FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
In this chapter will discuss the findings of data from questionnaire that have been distributed. The raw data of 120 sets of questionnaire have been distributed but only 111 sets of questionnaire have returned back. The sets of questionnaires were distributed to 2 branch of PERKESO in Negeri Sembilan area which is in Kuala Pilah and Seremban. The data obtained will be analysed by using SPSS Statistic Editor. The main purpose of this chapter is to investigating the training method, selection of trainer, delivery style toward employee productivity.
4.1 DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
In descriptive analysis, it will examine the demographic information from the target respondents by apply the frequencies analysis which consist of gender, age, level of education, income level and service length. The section A of the survey questionnaire included the demographic profile in order to obtain the data from the target respondents. The results from the frequency analysis are shown as below.
4.1.1 Respondent Demographic Profile
Section A explains the demographic information which included gender, age, level of education, income level and service length of respondents.
Table 4.1 : Descriptive Analysis for Gender
Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Male 43 38.7 38.7
Female 68 61.3 100.0
Total 111 100.0
Figure 4.1 : Descriptive Analysis for Gender
The number of male and female respondents which participated in this research was shown in Table 4.1 and Figure 4.1 above. There are 43 (38.74%) of male and 68 (61.26%) of female among the respondents
Table 4.2 : Descriptive Analysis for Age
Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 21- 30 years old 13 11.7 11.7
31-40 years old 40 36.0 47.7
41-50 years old 21 18.9 66.7
51-55 years old and above 37 33.3 100.0
Total 111 100.0
Figure 4.2 : Descriptive Analysis for Age
The age group of the respondents shown in Table 4.2 and Figure 4.2 is between 51 to 55 years old and above which is 37 respondents (33.333%). Then 41 to 50 years old with 21 respondents (18.91%), followed by age group 31 to 40 years old with respondents 40 (36.03%). Lastly, age range between 21 to 30 years old only 13 respondents (11.71%).
22.214.171.124 Educational Level
Table 4.3 : Descriptive Analysis for Educational Level
Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent
SPM 33 29.7 29.7
DIPLOMA 39 35.1 64.9
DEGREE 21 18.9 83.8
MASTER 18 16.2 100.0
Total 111 100.0
Figure 4.3: Descriptive Analysis for Educational Level
Table 4.3 and Figure 4.3 above show that the level of education of respondents which are 33 respondents are SPM level (29.7%) , 39 respondents are Diploma holder (35.1%) ,21 respondents are cames from Degree holders (18.9%) and the rest of 18 respondents are Master holder (16.2%).
126.96.36.199 Income Level
Table 4.4 : Descriptive Analysis for Income Level
Frequency Percent Cumulative
RM900-RM1900 11 9.9 9.9
RM2000-RM3900 59 53.2 63.1
RM4000-RM5900 20 18.0 81.1
RM6000 and above 21 18.9 100.0
Total 111 100.0
Figure 4.4 : Descriptive Analysis for Income Level
Table and Figure 4.4 above show that, 11 respondents (9.9%) with income range RM 900- RM 1900, 59 respondents (53.2%) with income range RM2000-RM3900, 20 respondents (18%) with income range RM4000- RM5900 and lastly 21 respondents with income range RM6000 and above.
188.8.131.52 Service Length
Table 4.5 : Descriptive Analysis for Service Length
Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent
1-5 years 43 38.7 38.7
5-10 years 6 5.4 44.1
10-15 years 25 22.5 66.7
15 years and above 37 33.3 100.0
Total 111 100.0
Figure 4.5 : Descriptive Analysis for Service Length
Table and Figure 4.5 above show the services length of respondents that participated in this research. Hence ,it show that 43 respondents (38.7%) have been working for 1 ‘ 5 years, 6 respondents (5.4%) for 5-10 years, 25 respondents (22.5%) for 10-15 years and lastly 37 respondents (33.3%) have been working in that sector for 15 years and above.
4.2 RELIABILITY ANALYSIS
In this research, the reliability analysis that being adopt from SPSS software is to identify the dependent variable which is employee productivity and also the independent variables of training method, selection of trainer and delivery styles. Besides, reliability analysis consists of 111 respondents.
Reliability measurement can be measured by using Cronbach’s Alpha theory to test the reliability of the collected data from questionnaires for testing the accuracy of the result. Cronbach’s Alpha is a reliability coefficient alpha value which will display the set of items which is positively correlated with each variable. Based on Cronbach’s Alpha procedure the closer the Cronbach’s Alpha is to 1, the higher the internal consistency reliability. In general, reliabilities less than 0.60 are considered to be poor, those in the 0.70 range are acceptable and those over 0.80 are good.
Before the items are submitted for reliability tests, all the negatively worded items in the questionnaires should be reversed first. Unless all the items measuring a variable are in the same direction, the reliabilities obtained will be incorrect. This method used to determine how well the items have strong connection to one and another.
Table 4.6: Reliability Score Table – Rule of Thumb (Hair Et Al(2005)
Table 4.7: Cronbach’s Alpha ‘ Rule of Thumb (Hair Et Al(2005)
Cronbach’s Alpha Internal Consistency
” ‘0.9 Excellent
0.8 >” ‘ 0.7 Acceptable
0.7 > ” ‘ 0.6 Range
0.6 >” ‘ 0.5 Poor
0.5 > ” Unacceptable
4.2.1 Employees Productivity
Table 4.8 Reliability statistics – Employee Productivity
Cronbach’s Alpha No of Items
According to Table 4.6, the value of Cronbach’s Alpha for the employee productivity is 0.939 which represents that 93.9% of questionnaire measure the employee productivity in this research is reliable. The value of Cronbach’s Alpha, 0.939 is under the range between ” ‘0.9 which means the 3 items to measure the employee productivity are excellent.
4.2.2 Training Method
Table 4.9 Reliability Statistics ‘ Training Method
Cronbach’s Alpha No of Items
According to Table 4.7, the value of Cronbach’s Alpha for the training method is 0.700 which represents that 70.0% of questionnaire measure the training method in this research is reliable. The value of Cronbach’s Alpha, 0.700 is under the range 0.8 >” ‘ 0.7which means the 2 items to measure the training method acceptable.
4.2.3 Selection of Trainer
Table 4.10 Reliability Statistics ‘ Selection of Trainer
Cronbach’s Alpha No of Items
According to Table 4.8, the value of Cronbach’s Alpha for the selection of trainer is 0.751 which represents that 75.1% of questionnaire measure the selection of trainer in this research is reliable. The value of Cronbach’s Alpha, 0.711 is under the range 0.8 >” ‘ 0.7 which means the 6 items to measure the selection of trainer are acceptable.
4.2.4 Delivery Style
Table 4.11 Reliability Statistics ‘ Delivery Style
No of Items
According to Table 4.9, the value of Cronbach’s Alpha for the delivery style is 0.797 which represents that 79.7% of questionnaire measure the delivery style in this research is reliable. The value of Cronbach’s Alpha, 0.797 is under the range 0.8 >” ‘ 0.7which means the 6 items to measure the delivery style are acceptable.
4.3. PEARSON CORRELATION COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS
A Pearson Correlation Coefficient will show the strength, direction, significance of the relationship among the variable (employee productivity , training method, selection of trainer and delivery style that will be measured at interval or ratio level. The number to represent Pearson Correlation is correlation coefficient and the relationship between two variables consider as perfect with positive correlation.
Other than that, the correlation could range between -1.0 and +1.0, then need to make sure that correlation is significant or not between two variables .A significance result can be recognize as p=0.05 which mostly accepted conventional level insocial science research. This explains that 95 times out of 100, it can be sure that there is a true or significant correlation between the two variables, while the other 5% chance that the relationship is not truly exist.
Table 4.12 Significant Scale
Significant Value Relationship
0.81 ‘ 1.00
0.61 ‘ 0.8
0.41 ‘ 0.6
0.21 ‘ 0.4
0.00 ‘ 0.2 Very Strong
4.3.1 Employees Productivity and Training Method
Table 4.13: Correlation between Employee Productivity and Training Method
MEAN_EP Pearson Correlation 1 .146
Sig. (2-tailed) .126
N 111 111
MEAN_TM Pearson Correlation .146 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .126
N 111 111
According to Table 4.13, the correlation coefficient value is 0.146 which under the range between 0.00 ‘ 0.2. So it indicates a very low linear relationship through a shaky line between training method and employee productivity. It can be concluded that, there is no significant relationship between training method and employee productivity as the p-value is 0.126 which is more than the alpha value of 0.01.
4.3.2 Employee Productivity and Selection of Trainer
Table 4.14: Correlation between Employee Productivity and Selection of Trainer
MEAN_EP Pearson Correlation 1 .414**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 111 111
MEAN_ST Pearson Correlation .414** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 111 111
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
According to Table 4.14, the correlation coefficient value is 0.414 which under the range between 0.41-0.6. So it indicates a medium positive linear relationship through a firm linear rule. Besides the positive value from the correlation coefficient also can determine that selection of trainers and employee productivity are interrelated. Therefore, it can be concluded that here are significant positive relationship between selection of trainer and employee productivity as p-value is 0.000 which is less than the alpha value of 0.01 .
184.108.40.206 Employee Productivity and Delivery Style
Table 4.15: Correlation between Delivery Style and Employee Productivity
MEAN_EP Pearson Correlation 1 .735**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 111 111
MEAN_DS Pearson Correlation .735** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 111 111
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
According to Table 4.15, the correlation coefficient value is 0.735 which under the range between 0.61-0.8. So it indicates a strong positive linear relationship through a firm linear rule. Besides the positive value from the correlation coefficient also can determine that delivery style and employee productivity are interrelated. Therefore, it can be concluded that here are significant positive relationship between delivery style and employee productivity as p-value is 0.000 which is less than the alpha value of 0.01 .
4.4 MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION
Multiple linear regression analysis is a method that to identify the relationship between independent variable and dependent variable using a linear equation in order to obtain data. Regression analysis was used to identify the most influential factor among these factors. In this research multiple regressions used to identify the relationship between employee productivity with training method, selection of trainers and delivery style
Table 4.13:Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of
1 .812a .659 .649 .27844
a. Predictors: (Constant), MEAN_DS, MEAN_ST, MEAN_TM
b. Dependent Variable: MEAN_EP
The R square shown on the Table 4.13 above indicates the extent or percentage of training method, selection of trainers; delivery styles and can explain the variations of employee productivity. In this study, independent variables (training method, selection of trainers, delivery styles) are able to explain that 64.9% of the variations in dependent variable (employee productivity). However, the remaining of 35.1% (100%-64.6%) unexplained in this study, which means there can be classify as additional variable that can affect the employee productivity which have not explained in this research result..
Table 4.14 Multiple Regression -ANOVA
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 16.013 3 5.338 68.844 .000b
Residual 8.296 107 .078
Total 24.309 110
a. Dependent Variable: MEAN_EP
b. Predictors: (Constant), MEAN_DS, MEAN_ST, MEAN_TM
According to table above, which is ANOVA, F-test, the P-value =0.000, which less than alpha value = 0.05. it means that all independent variable are significant.
Table 4.15:Regression Analysis between Training and Development (TM,ST,DS) and Employee Productivity (EP)
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) .542 .407 1.329 .187
MEAN_TM .474 .078 .424 6.043 .000
MEAN_ST .218 .108 .137 2.024 .045
MEAN_DS 1.208 .098 .903 12.336 .000
a. Dependent Variable: MEAN_EP
Table 4.15 above showed that which Training and Development among Training Method (TM), Selection of Trainer (ST) and Delivery Style (DS) was the most influenced factor by Employee Productivity (EP). From the analysis, it stated that all the three training and development namely Training Method (TM) (” = 0.424), Selection of Trainer (ST) (”=0.137) and Delivery Style (DS) (”= 0.903) were influenced by Employee Productivity (EP) in PERKESO.
From the findings, we can concluded that if Employee Productivity in PERKESO increased by 1%, their Training Method(TM) will increased by 42.4%, Selesction of Trainer (ST) will increased by 13.7% and Delivery Style (DS) will increased by 90.3%. The high t-values indicate that the relationship is strong while low t-value indicates that the relationship between dependent and independent variables is weak. It can be concluded that the most influenced factor is Delivery Style (DS).
Based on the result above, it has answered the entire hypothesis in this study.
H0: There is relationship between training method and employee productivity
H1: There is no relationship between training method and employees productivity
Since the significant level is less than 0.05, there is a relationship between training method and employee’s productivity. Thus, H1 is accepted and H0 is rejected.
H0: There is relationship between selection of trainer and employee productivity.
H1: There is no relationship between selection of trainer and employee productivity.
Since the significant level is more than 0.05, there is no relationship between selection of trainer and employee productivity. . Thus, H1 is accepted and H0 is rejected.
H0: There is relationship between delivery style and employee productivity.
H1: There is no relationship between delivery style and employee productivity
Since the significant level isless than 0.05, there is no relationship between delivery style and employee productivity. Thus, H1 is accepted and H0 is rejected.
For the conclusion in Chapter 4, all the research objectives have been answer by the analysis that had been done by using SPSS. The main objective of this study was to examine the effect of training and development on employee productivity in PERKESO KUALA PILAH and SEREMBAN. The result of this research had led the researcher to answer two research objectives that the researcher intended to achieve. There was two hyphotesis was accepted and one hypotheses was rejected.
Descriptive analysis described the background of the respondents. The reliability testing, Cronbach’s Alpha for all variables was good and Pearson’s Correlation analysis helped the researcher to identify the significant relationship between training and development on employee productivity. While regression analysis was used to identify this the most influential factor among these factors.
The next chapter will cover discussion, limitation of study, recommendation, direction for future studies and also the conclusion of this research. Chapter 5 CONCLUSION and RECOMMENDATIONS
This is the last chapter which consists of discussion, recommendation, direction for future studies and the conclusion which based on the findings of the study. SPSS was used to analyze the data on relationship between the effect of training and development on employee productivity in Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO) Negeri Sembilan. Analysis conducted includes Reliability Analysis, Descriptive Analysis, Correlation Analysis, and Regression Analysis.
From the research findings, the researcher can conclude that the purpose of the research is to identify the relationship between training and development on employee productivity in Pertubuhan Keselamaatan Sosial (PERKESO) Negeri Sembilan.
According to the research done, there are two objectives of this research. Firstly the research objective is to determine the relationship between training and development with employee productivity.
Based on Table 4.14, the significant value for training method and employee productivity is 0.00. It shows that there is relationship between training method and employee productivity. So, the hypothesis was accepted.
Next, based on Table 4.14, the significant value for selection of trainer and employee productivity is 0.45. It how that, there is no relationship between selection of trainer and employee productivity. Hence, the alternate hypothesis was accepted.
According to Table 4.15, the significant value for delivery style and employee productivity is 0.00. It how that, there is relationship between delivery style and employee productivity. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The second research objective is to determine the most influence factor between training and development on employee productivity in Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO) Negeri Sembilan. Based on Table 4.14, the highest t- value is come from Delivery Style.
Based on the result gather from Table 4.13, there are no relationship between training method and employee productivity. Training method that have been dissussed in this research is on- the- job training. Firstly, it is recommended that training method that have been implement in PERKESO Negeri Sembilan must be improved. It can be improved by adding up another training method that can be practice. So that, the organization can suit the training method with employees comfortable and easy to practice. This is because, training method that have been practice in such organization is an essential component toward organizational change in term of employee atitude of mind toward the job and productivity (Carmichael, Ercolani, Kang, etal., 2009).
Secondly, it recommended that PERKESO Negeri Sembilan should contribute more to and maintain the style of selecting the best trainer. This is because according to Batool & Batool,2012) best selection of trainer will directly impact the employees productivity
Lastly, it recommended that PERKESO Negeri Sembilan should maintain the way of deliver the training to the trainee. This is because, a good training design by the organization is based on the need and wants of their employees.
5.3 RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE STUDIES
Research model in this research are purposed to future research. An overall of three components of training and development (training method, selection of trainer and delivery style) are adapted as independent variable and for the employee productivity as dependent variable.
The proposed the exact data ought to be accumulated for a superior comprehension in order give a more exactness information on the future research. So, it suggested for future researcher to distribute the questionnaires earlier as possible so that there is better response from the respondents. If the time given is too short to respondent, it is hard for respondent to answer the questionnaire . Besides that, the researcher also should explain more details to the respondents regarding the questions if needed. Researchers suggest to the future researcher to use different kind of method to collect data from the respondents such as interview the potential respondent.
For future studies, the researcher needs to add variables. By adding variables there will be accurate results. In theory, the more variables added, the more tendency to get good results.
After carried out this research, there is a significant impact of training and development provided by the organization toward employee productivity in (PERKESO). The findings for this research could recommend better implication for the Human Resources personnel to outline an all-around arranged training and development for the employees with a specific end goal to address their needs and wants.
Furthermore, the overview of this study, limitation of this study and proposal for the future researcher has been clarified and generated all through the chapter.
Besides, the relationship among all the independent variables and dependent variables according to the result formulated from the descriptive analysis and inferential analysis through SPSS software have been analyzed and explained.
The limitation that has been faced along the research had also been disclosed and discussed. So it can be recommended the future researcher to work on improvements in their future study and explore other predictors that may dedicate to the employee productivity in any other industry.
Lastly, it can be concluded that the two independent variables which are selection of trainers and delivery styles, have significant relationship towards the employee productivity and it can be improved after organization provided the training and development to the employee and they will assist the organization not just only to improve in profits revenue and reputation but also to achieve the organizational goals and objectives