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Enhancing Pwd Mobility Using A Three-Wheeled Vehicle

Enhancing PWD Mobility Using A Three-Wheeled Vehicle

We as a human being struggled with our own feet and hands since we are born. We struggled as we learn to crawl, stand up, walk, run, jump and face many trials in our lives. Having two hands and two feet is normal for us human beings, but some of us humans don’t live with this kind of normal life. PWD or People with Disabilities are people who have an impairment that causes them to struggle more than people who are normal. PWDs use different kinds of equipment to overcome these hardships to live easily than living with their disabilities without any help. These equipments are made especially for PWDs and as our technology advances, these equipments also improves through time. So, the researchers aim to improve a specific mobility aid that focuses on lower limb disability.

Mobility impairment is defined as a category of disability that includes people with varying types of physical disabilities. This type of disability includes upper or lower limb loss or disability, manual dexterity and disability in coordination with different organs of the body. Disability in mobility can either be congenital or acquired as a consequence of age problem and of a disease. People who have a broken skeletal structure also fall into this category of disability (Disabled World, 2015).

A physical impairment may either be a disabling condition or other health impairment that requires adaptation. People with physical impairment disabilities often use assertive devices or mobility aids such as crutches, canes, wheelchairs and artificial limbs to obtain mobility (Disabled World, 2015). According to North American Nursing Diagnosis Association or NANDA (n.d.), physical and mobility impairment can limit a person’s independent purposeful physical movement of the body. Accordingly, the alteration in the person’s mobility may be either temporary or permanent.

Moreover, NANDA (n.d.) also explained that mobility is related to changes in a person’s body brought about by age. Loss in muscle strength and mass, less mobile and stiffer joints, as well as gait changes can affect a person’s balance and may significantly compromise mobility. Mobility is crucial to the maintenance of independent living among seniors. If a person’s mobility is restricted, it may affect activities of daily living.

Mobility measures the way a person can move freely or be moved freely and easily, but people with physical impairment suffer since they cannot move freely and easily. Thus, improving mobility for these kinds of people is a critical objective for organizations that wishes to increase the ability of disabled people. These organizations aim to ease the movement of people with disability.

According to Field (2007), one-third of people with disabilities have no public transit or ADA-mandated paratransit available to them. The other two-thirds, who have access to these services, rarely use them and generally do not blame their nonuse of their disability. In addition, the travel mode that created the largest barriers for disabilities was walking, a mode necessary for the successful use of all other modes, as well as physical mobility.

Awang, Sham M., Sham R., and Yaman (2013) explained that accessibility is important in our daily life especially when dealing with environment. Realizing the fact that most of the public transport terminals still lack in terms of good design and facilities among disabled user, a serious concern for the matter is needed to ensure convenient for all. It has been widely accepted that disabled people generally have fewer opportunities and a lower quality of life that non-disabled people. Disabled who commute using current public transport terminals tend to rate a higher level of discomfort especially towards the traveling environment. Added with poor accessibility, the disabled face more challenges and difficulties while traveling using public transportation. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the disabled issues while traveling or while using the facilities of public transportation.

Moreover, Mashiri et al. (2006) using a paper, scanned existing practice in both developed and developing countries relating to the provision of public transport information to persons with disabilities and provides an overview of the range of issues that need to be taken into account in designing inclusive, robust, easily accessible, and practical public transport information for all passengers. It then describes the pilot projects that were conducted in South Africa and India.

Assistive technology including wearable, have a positive impact towards changing the lives of people with disabilities. Advances in glasses, electronics, sensors, and a wide range of digital devices are substantially improving how people with disabilities (PWD) navigate the world, and allow greater possibilities for PWD who are competing in today’s job market. (Paris & Miller, 2016). AT devices as well as accessible and inclusive home and community environs are essential to maximizing mobility for many. Given the impact of the environment upon the capacity of individuals to realize community mobility, this raises the question as to whether rehabilitation practitioners, as well as prescribing AT devices, should work to build accessible communities via systemic advocacy (Layton, 2012).

Critical Disability studies think differently about the unruly impaired body and mind. ‘The disruptive child’, ‘the wheelchair-bound’, and the ‘intellectually disabled’ are turned on their heads to become ‘the productive child’, ‘the human-machine hybrid’, and ‘the distribution of intelligence’ that is required of sustainable communities. The concept of hybrids and cyborgs allow us to think about the potential of human beings in an increasingly technological (and postmodern) landscape. The history of disability technology is one of normalization, cure, and rehabilitation. But, at turn of the twenty-first century, the postmodernisation of Empire (Hardt and Negri, 2000) has created new relationships with technology and science which deeply influence how we view bodies (Goodley, 2010, p.167).

The cyborg/disabled body is a sophisticated body, aware of its needs, its history and anticipating its future. The cyborg raises important questions about human rights (individual or collective), independence (or interdependence), and co-dependence. The cyborg make us think about how we can interconnect with one another in inclusive ways. The cyborg is not a metaphorical invocation but a referent for the actual bodies of the disabled people. The disabled person/cyborg is a vision of an interconnected future that blurs nature/technology and bodies/culture.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to enhance the mobility of Joey Asis, from Sta.Cruz, Porac, Pampanga, who suffers from physical disability due to impaired lower limbs wherein his legs are smaller than the normal size and length. Such type of disability causes him difficulty in moving and affects his daily life. Moving from place to place causes him fatigue and becomes time consuming especially when he cannot get any help. Thus, this study proposed a three-wheeled vehicle that could lessen his difficulty and, at the same time, enhance his mobility. Through the proposed machine, he would be able to move faster, safer, and with ease.

General Statement

How the researchers address the problem of the beneficiary in terms of mobility, safety, comfortability, and maintenance?

General Objective

This study aims to address the needs of the chosen beneficiary who has impaired lower limbs that affected his mobility.

Specific Objective

• To design a machine that can enhance the beneficiary’s mobility as he performs his work;

• To produce a three-wheeled vehicle that can assure the beneficiary’s safety and comfortability;

• To provide assistance to the beneficiary by creating a three-wheeled vehicle that is cost-free and easy to maintain.

Conceptual Framework

This study involves four phases geared towards the completion of the research.

• First is the Analysis Phase in which the researchers gathered the necessary information as bases for concept. The data were based on the interview conducted with the beneficiary in order to determine his specific needs in terms of his mobility, safety, comfortability and capabilities. Also included as inputs were the theories about machines and machine designs studied in the class.

• Second is the Designing Phase wherein a design for the machine was conceptualized using the information acquired in Phase 1.

• Third is the Implementation Phase that included the fabrication of the actual machine by implementing the design conceptualized in Phase 2. Also done under this phase were the speed tests, safety tests, shaft design tests, alignment tests, and material tests in order to ensure the quality and practicality of the machine.

• Finally, the Evaluation Phase involves the assessment of the product by presenting it to the beneficiary for actual use. The machine was evaluated based on how it can facilitate enhanced mobility, safety, comfortability and low maintenance.

Moreover, the process follows a cycle in order to assure a systematic checking and testing so that in case the evaluation phase (Phase 4) reveals a certain problem, the researchers went back to the previous phases for rechecking the output. This cycle attains its finality when the product – the three-wheeled vehicle – shows no more problem and finally gets approved / accepted by the beneficiary.

As for the testing and checking of the output so that the objective of this study could be attained, the give model was followed.

As illustrated, the testing process was done to check if the objectives were attained. In case the product did not meet the objectives, the researchers checked for specific problems / errors and found solutions. Then, the solution was implemented and the product was tested again. The testing was concluded as successful if the output has met the objectives of this study.

Significance of the Study

This study will be beneficial to the following:

• Persons with disability – This study will provide a new perspective in the effort of alleviating the condition of those who are inflicted with disabilities, a new approach in addressing their needs and wants, and a new light of hope for them as they deal with their own disabilities.

• The University – This study will contribute to the university’s research agenda geared towards the creation of new knowledge for countryside development making the university a player in addressing the plight of the PWDs.

• The Future Researchers – This study will provide baseline information for future researchers who will conduct a study about PWDs.

Scopes and Limitations

The machine is intended to enhance the mobility of people with disability specifically those with impaired lower limbs and, at the same time, assure their safety and comfortability. The machine to be produced does not cater to other forms of disabilities such as those with impaired upper limbs or with impairment of both upper and lower limbs. Moreover, the intended machine is manually operated and is not capable of electrical system. Furthermore, the machine does not have the speed of a motorized vehicle. Method

Research Design

The study employed the experimental and descriptive type of design. The descriptive design serves to observe and describe the topic that provides an answer or solution to the problem. On the other hand, the experimental type of design serves to conduct a process of analyzing, designing, implementing and evaluating that eventually lead to a set of conclusions.

Mechanical Design

The following are the parts of the machine:

Frame: The rigid structure that serves as the backbone of the machine. It is composed of Iron pipes, round bars, angle bars and flat metal bars welded together to support the materials mounted on it.

Wheels: Primarily used to make the vehicle move.

Steering: This is intended for directing the vehicle to a specific direction.

Hand-Operated Pedals: These are intended to make the vehicle move.

Hand-Controlled Brakes: These are specially designed to control the speed of the vehicle.


This study has, for its participant, the beneficiary who is person with disability whose lower limbs got impaired due to unspecified reason. The beneficiary is a male, of legal age and earns his living as a parking attendant at Nepo Mall parking space. The researchers conducted an interview with him and the responses acquired were used as inputs for this study.

Instruments and Sources of Data

The data presented in the study were primary and secondary data. The primary data came from the beneficiary through oral and actual interviews conducted by the researchers. The secondary data on the other hand came from the internet and research journals.

In addition, the following instruments were used in this study:

• Interview Guide – This was used in getting the data from the beneficiary who is also the primary source of this study. The interview guide was composed of open-ended questions which were validated by experts.

• Checklist – This was used in the actual testing of the machine in order to find out if the objectives were attained or not.


After identifying the specific topic of this study, the researchers reviewed specific related literature and studies to get ample background about the study at hand. Also, a specific beneficiary was identified and interviewed in order to acquire vital information. Then, the researchers proceeded with the designing aspect by infusing all the data acquired from the reviewed materials and from the interview conducted. Apart from that, the researchers also held a series of brainstorming and consultations. When the design was completed, the researchers proceeded with the fabrication of the target output. After several attempts applying the trial-and-error technique and experimentation, a final output was produced which was then presented to the beneficiary for final checking and acceptance.

Procedure in Fabricating a Three-wheeled Vehicle for PWD

Building the Frame

Bending of tubes. Use a ½ schedule 20 tubes, bend them for the edges.

Welding of tubes. Cut and weld them to the specified joints.

Building the Bearing Housing

Build the bearing housing. Build the bearing housing were the fork will be placed.

Apply the modifications

Apply the modifications. Put the modifications as requested by the beneficiary that the pedals are in front wheel drive.

Search/Make a New Design. The chair and pedals are far from each other that a new design that uses two forks will be used where a fork is placed to another fork making the pedals near the driver.

Installing the handle grip. Install a handle grip so the user can use one hand for pedaling and the other for steering.

Reinforcing the Frame

Weld Flat bars and tubes. Weld a few flat bars and tubes for the reinforcement of the frame to make it durable.

Installation of metal sheet. Install a metal sheet for the step.

Installation of brake handle. Install a handle for the break.

Building the Roof

Build the ceiling/roof holder. Use extra metal tubes for the ceiling/roof holder.

Build the roof. Use a 7mm round bar and weld them.

Welding of the roof. Weld the roof to the handle tubes.


Installation of front wheel. Install the gears in the wheel which are placed in front.

Attaching of chain. Attach the chain and connect it to the pedal gear.

Attaching of rear wheels and break. Attach the two rear wheels and the break.

Installing the chain guard. Attach the chain guard for protection.

Building of roof and chair cover. Bring it to an upholstery shop to be measured for the making of the cover and give the sizes to the bottom and back of the chair and the arm rest.

Paint the vehicle. Paint the vehicle with a bright colored paint to be visible at night.

Installation of handles and break. Install the handle grip, handle steering and hand break.

Roof Installation. Attach the roof and bolt them in place.

Chair Installation. Screw the bottom and back part of the seat.

Results and Discussion


The trial made was to measure the capacity of the machine.

Trial 1

Trial Period (Time) = 1 Minute

Revolutions per Minute

(Pedal) = 60 RPM Revolutions per Second:

(Pedal) = 1RPS

Speed = 2.2 m/s

Distance Covered = 2.2m/rev

Total Distance = 132m

The duration of this trial is exactly 1 minute. In this trial, the researchers measured how many revolutions were made in a minute. 60 revolutions were made in the process, and by converting the time into seconds using the formula below, the revolution per second will be known.

Revolution per second = (60rev/min)*(1min/60s) = 1rps

After the revolution made per second is known, which has a value of 1, the researchers computed for the distance covered per revolution. It will be computed by dividing the revolutions made per second to the speed of the vehicle.

Distance covered = Speed/rps = 2.2/1 = 2.2m/rev

Since 1 revolution is made per second and the distance covered per revolution is 2.2m, the researchers can now measure the total distance that the trial covered by using the formula below.

Total Distance = (Distance covered*RPM) = 2.2*60 = 132m

The Total Distance that was travelled in 1min which has a 1 revolution per second is 132m.


The main objective of the study is to develop a safe and comfortable means of transportation for people with disability. The fabricated hand-operated machine is only intended for PWDs with impaired lower limbs. The said machine is not suited for speed competition with other types of vehicles or transportations.

The design of the machine underwent several revisions until a satisfactory result was achieved. With the use of the machine, it is expected that there were improvements in terms of mobility, safety and comfortability on the part of the beneficiary. Moreover, it is also foreseen that the vehicle will lessen his level of difficulty and will contribute to his productivity. Only one trial was made in the process, because the three-wheeled vehicle has a fixed gear train and only produces one result despite of many trials.

The concept of implementing the study is based on the belief that its practical utility is tested where it will be used, that is, the beneficiary himself. With that, the researchers brought the machine to Nepo Mall parking lot where the beneficiary is working as a parking attendant. The researchers oriented him about the vehicle and instructed him on how to use it as well as on how to maintain it. For that, a demonstration was conducted citing specific instructions on the mobility, safety, comfortability and maintainance of the said machine. After that, the beneficiary tried the machine and all his comments were noted. Everything went on smoothly in which the beneficiary indicated his satisfaction and approval. Because of that, the study is deemed successful.


In view of the results gained, the following recommendations are being forwarded:

• That the three-wheeled vehicle produced in this study used by PWDs with lower limbs impairment in order to enhance their mobility which results in higher level of productivity;

• That other researchers conduct a study geared at addressing the needs of PWDs with upper limbs impairment to increase their level of comfortability;

• That the framework, methodology, procedure and instruments be utilized by those who want to take the PWDs as subjects of their study;

• That a similar study be conducted involving a different beneficiary in order to determine if the same results will be revealed; and

• That future researchers conduct further studies about PWD mobility in a different setting and locale. References

Awang, M., Sham, M., Sham, R., & Yaman, R. (November 2013).

Accessibility for Disabled in Public Transportation Terminals

Retrieved March 23, 2017 from

Bopogane-Zulu, H., Marrian, B., & Mashiri, M. (2006).

Improving the provision of Public Transport Information for Persons with Disabilities in the Developing World. Retrieved March 23, 2017 from

Disabled World (2015). Physical and Mobility Impairments: Information & News

Disabled World, 03 March 2015. Retrieved from March 11, 2017 from

Field, M., Jette, A., & Institute America (2007).

Transportation Patterns and Problems of People With Disabilities

Retrieved March 23, 2017 from

Goodley, D. (2010). Resistance: Cyborgs and Hybrids.

Disability Studies: An Interdisciplinary Introduction, pp. 167-168. Sage

Retrieved March 23, 2017

Holland, J., Miller, K., & Paris, D. (2016).

Wearables and People with Disabilites. In (Google Books), Wearable Technology and Mobile Innovations for Next-Generation Education, pp. 167

Retrieved March 24, 2017 from

Layton, N. (2012).

Barriers and Facilitators to Community Mobility for Assistive Technology Users. Rehabilitation Research and Practice, Vol. (2012)

Retrieved March 24, 2017 from

Mobility (n.d.). Online Etymology Dictionary.

Retrieved March 11, 2017 from


Appendix A.

Fabrication Process

First Phase

First Phase

Second Phase

Painting the Frame

Painting the Frame

Painting the Frame

Testing of the Machine

Testing of the Machine

Testing of the Machine Final Output

Appendix B.

Three-wheeled Vehicle Design

First Phase

Second Phase

Third Phase

Frame with measurement

Neck Frame with measurement

Roof with Measurement

Appendix C. Parts

Appendix D.

User’s Manual

Operation of the Three-wheeled Vehicle for PWD

• Reviewing the components of the vehicle if they are intact.

• Checking the tires if they have enough air for safety purposes.

• Mounting the three-wheeled vehicle to check for comfortability.

• Test-driving the vehicle using the hands.

• Steering the vehicle using the handle.

• Pulling the hand brake at the side to control its speed.


• The tires must be checked at all times to make sure that they have the right pressure. If the pressure is low, the tires need to be inflated.

• The brakes must be working at all times.

• The chain must be tight at all times.

Safety Features

• Chain Guard – To keep the hands safe from the chains since the three-wheeled vehicle is hand operated.

• Headlight – To see the road while its nighttime/dark.

• Handbrake – To stop/slow down the vehicle when it is going too fast.

• Reflector – So other vehicles could see the three-wheeled vehicle in the road while its nighttime/dark.

• Roof – Protection from the sun. To prevent heat stroke and skin illness.

Appendix E.

Cost Analysis of the Machine Summary

Notes 1-5

Notes 6-8

Appendix F.

Interview Guide

Questions Response

1. Name Joey Asis

2. Where do you live? Sta. Cruz, Porac, Pampanga

3. What is your Disability/Physical Impairment? Cripple (Lower limb)

4. When did it start? 7 years old

5. How did you get it? Drug/Medicine overdose

6. Are you willing to participate in our study? Yes

7. Do you wish to improve the vehicle you are using right now? Yes

Appendix G.


Checklist Result


Comfortable GOOD

Easy to Maintain GOOD

Durable GOOD

Same or lesser burden than the old vehicle GOOD

Easy to use GOOD