HUM 2331 US History to 1865: MWF 1-1:50 20 September 2017
Quiz 1 Replacement Assignment
1. John Winthrop’s speech to the General Court of Massachusetts explained the Puritan
concept of freedom which consisted of natural liberty (doing whatever you want) and moral liberty (doing what is good). In the Massachusetts Bay colony, the Puritans wanted to have the right to worship and govern themselves but had to exercise good moral conduct by obeying religious and government authority. Winthrop explains the idea of freedom with an example of the status of women in society. He states that a woman has the liberty to choose her husband and thus is subject to his authority. So, a woman gets the liberty to choose who rules over her but then must obey everything her husband says. This shows that in the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies, individuals needed to conform to the colony and practice what the authority wanted them to practice; they had low individuality and women had low status and rights under her husband. The trial of Anne Hutchinson also supports this idea as she was prosecuted for having views that differed and “endangered” society by holding meetings to discuss religious issues. Hutchinson was brought before the court led by John Winthrop because she “seduced honest people” in her meetings (Foner 36) thereby dishonoring the commonwealth and disrupting society. Winthrop stated that Hutchinson holding meetings and talking about churches is not fitting of her sex, showing that women were not supposed to discuss
religious topics. At the conclusion of the trial, Hutchinson was subjected to being banished from the colony. Though she did not agree with the judgement of the court, she had to obey since she is subject to their authority. Overall, John Winthrop’s speech and Anne Hutchinson’s trial showed that Puritan leaders found order and conformity more important than religious freedom and tolerance and women were expected to obey their husbands and government and if any member of the colonies had opinions that dissented from the group, they would be accused of endangering the foundation of Puritan society (332 Words).
2. William Penn was the founder of Pennsylvania and a follower of the Quakers. He envisioned the colony of Pennsylvania to be a place where people who faced religious persecution could go and have the freedom to practice their religion. Penn stated that “no one has to acknowledge one ultimate God” (Foner 47) and in Pennsylvania, individuals won’t be prejudiced for believing in another god nor will they need to worship at any specific place. Also, the colonists would have the right to choose a representative in government, though that person had to be a Christian. In terms of the role of Indians, Penn believed that Indians were friendly people and colonists would be able to trade and get along with them. In contrast, the view of Nathaniel Bacon towards the Indians was one of prejudice and dislike. Bacon believed that Indians were enemies to the king and they were “robbers, thieves, and invaders” (Foner 50). He was not happy with the way that the Indians were treated and he didn’t like the fact that Governor Berkeley protected the Indians though they had firearms that colonists were not allowed to have. Under Berkeley’s authority, the small farmers, landless men, and indentured servants grew tired
and angry over unjust taxes, the monopoly of trade, and the greed of the governor, and their voices not being heard. Bacon’s solution for the colonists’ problems was to kill or remove the Indians and use their land to open more space for the white colonists. Also, Bacon and his men called for a reduction in taxes and the cessation of oppression of the colonists by governing authorities such as Governor Berkeley. Overall, Penn and Bacon have very different arguments for their respective colonies and the role of Indians. Penn saw the good that was in everyone and Bacon saw the danger that the Indians brought and the greediness of the authority that ruled his colony (319 Words).
3. In Early Colonial America, indentured servitude was a means for people to learn a trade by voluntarily signing a contract to work for someone for a period of 7 years. During the 7 years, the indentured servant was expected to faithfully serve his or her master and obey their master no matter where they were. They were not to damage their master’s goods or reputation and had to be at their master’s side unless they were on leave. In return, the master was expected to teach the indentured servant to the best of his abilities and provide the servant with food, drink, lodging, and washing. During winter nights, the master would provide schooling and after the end of the servitude, the master would provide new apparel for the servant. Some indentured servants viewed the experience as a poor one. For example, an indentured servant by the name of Elizabeth Sprigs wrote to her father and complained that she experienced constant labor and was only given Indian corn and salt to eat. Sprigs was not given shoes to stockings to wear and only had a blanket to sleep on the ground. Not only that, she was tied and whipped while serving her master. So, the indentured servant life varied depending on which master the servant was
contracted to. In contrast to the life of female indentured servants, women in the Carolina generally had a great and happy life. Many women married young and made clothes to dress their families. Women had many children and would also help their husbands at work by planting or they would go use the canoes. In the Carolinas, young girls would be taught how to sew and help with house chores and would be able to get an education and help manage family business. Overall, Early Colonial America life varied depending on location and circumstances with some learning trade via indentured servitude or working with family (320 Words).