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Courtney Schaf August 31st, 2017

Courtney Schaf August 31st, 2017

ID: z5177701 TUT: Thursday 4pm

Annotated Bibliography

References #1

Chaney, C. and Robertson, R. (2013). Racism and Police Brutality in America. Journal of African American Studies, 17(4), pp.480-505.

In this study Cassandra Chaney and Ray V. Robertson review the connection between racism and police brutality in America. The researchers evaluated data collected by the National Police Misconduct Statistics and Reporting Project (NPMSRP) to determine whether or not the rate of police brutality has shifted in contemporary America. The main focuses of this research include analyzing the rate of police brutality in America as well as understanding how the police is perceived by the American public — specifically how this perception of the police affects black males. This study is useful to my research topic because it provides insight into the heated topic of police brutality and racism in America. The main limitations of this study are that NPMSPR findings are not frequently updated and the lack of real narratives by victims of police brutality which would serve as informative qualitative evidence. Overall, this study is effective in researching quantitative data about police misconduct and thus create a profile of the marginalized members of society who often fall victim to this crime. This study will not form the basis of my research however it provides an international outlook into the racist policing and the victims of police brutality.

References #2

Cunneen, C. (1990). Aboriginal-Police Relations in Redfern: with special reference to the ‘Police Raid’ of 8 February 1990, a report commissioned by the National Inquiry into Racist Violence. Sydney: Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission.

In this report commissioned by the National Inquiry into Racist Violence, Chris Cunneen explores the historical background behind the relationship between the aboriginal people and police forces in Redfern, NSW. Cunneen reviews historical events and police reports of incidences in which discriminatory policing occurred as means of showing the ongoing disputes between aboriginal people and the police in Redfern. Her research focuses on revealing the injustices faced by the Aboriginal community in Redfern by using qualitative and famous examples of traumatic incidences between Aboriginal victims and the police as well as recommend that a new and more just police act be implemented. This document is useful to my research because it provides a detailed overview of ongoing police brutality within a specific aboriginal community in Australia. The main limitation of this article is quite outdated given that it is nearly 30 years old, therefore it would be helpful to get more recent data. Thus, this source uses historical evidence to illustrate the hostile aboriginal-police relationship that inevitably exists as a result of over policing and racist violence. Cunneen’s extensive review of historical events and data will we useful to draw comparisons with more modern day cases and victims of police misconduct.

References #3

Dwyer, A. (2017). Pleasures, Perversities, and Partnerships: The Historical Emergence of LGBT-Police Relationships. In: D. Peterson and V. Panfil, ed., Handbook of LGBT Communities, Crime, and Justice. Springer, pp.149-164.

In this chapter, Angela Dwyer examines both historical and social scientific accounts of LGBT-police interactions to document and make sense of the historical ups and down relationship between the two parties. Dwyer looks closely at historical accounts, both tense and triumphant, and how they altered police interactions with the LGBT community. Dwyer’s analysis aims to highlight the intense and rapidly shifting LGBT-police relations as well as suggests alternate ways to improve these interactions to a more progress. This source is relevant to my research because it shows LGBT people as a marginalized group in Australia falling victim to unjust police practices. However, the source is limited because it lacks statistical evidence because Australian police reports do not record hate crimes motivated by sexual orientation or gender diversity. Overall, this source adequately demonstrates that although the LGBT community continues to progress forward with regards to their relationship with the police, this was not a smooth process and the community has and continues to experience a lot of hardships. This chapter will help strengthen my argument because it discusses another Australian minority community’s relationship with the police, it also recognizes that although LGBT relations with the police have significantly improved in recent years, this does not erase the painful past.

References #4

Fitzgerald, J. and Weatherburn, D. (2002). Aboriginal Victimisation and Offending: the Picture from Police Records*. ABORIGINAL AND ISLANDER HEALTH WORKER JOURNAL, 26(4), pp.26-28.

In this article, Jacqueline Fitzgerald and Don Weatherburn evaluate the overrepresentation of aboriginal people among victims of crime and offenders by analyzing police reports data collected in NSW. By using data recorded by the NSW police, the authors conducted quantitative analyses to calculate victimization rates of Aboriginal people in comparison to all other NSW residents. Their research mainly focuses on calculating, categorizing, and comparing ATSI victims with the total NSW victims. This article is useful to my research topic because it examines both aboriginal victimization and specifically aboriginal female victimization. The primary limitation of the article is explicitly noted in the article itself; the author explains “Police data are not an ideal source of information about victimisation and offending because many offences are not reported to the police, while only a small proportion of offenders are apprehended.” Thus, the authors acknowledge that although statistics over represent ATSI people in NSW as both victims and offenders of crime, this is most likely a result of various factors. This article will be a useful resource in my research because it provides a general overview of victimization rates in NSW with an in-depth focus on aboriginal people and aboriginal females.

References #5

Smith, B. and Holmes, M. (2003). Community Accountability, Minority Threat, and Police Brutality: An Examination of Civil Rights Criminal Complaints*. Criminology, 41(4), pp.1035-1064.

In this study, Brad W. Smith and Malcolm D. Holmes search for answers as to why minorities are disproportionately subject to police brutality in America and how past police injustices to minority community has resulted in their general mistrust of criminal justice agencies. By examining past studies and testing a series of hypotheses, Smith and Holmes aim to understand the theoretical reasoning as to why minority communities are more likely victims to unjust police practicing. This study is useful to my research because it tests and proves that both the community accountability hypothesis and the threat hypothesis have a significant effect on biased and unfair police practices towards black and hispanic people. A main limitation to this study is identified by the researchers as the failure to accurate factor in external characteristics other than just race/ethnicity that also impact personal identity. Thus, the researchers emphasize the complexity of police departments and other governmental organizations that make studying the victimization of police misconduct an incredibly difficult task. This study is fitting for my topic because it concludes that police brutality is not triggered by one singular variable, but rather a result of the racial and social tensions that persist in America.