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Separation Of Constituents Of Inorganic Mixture Containing Two Cations

In this experiment, a paper chromatography procedure uses similar principles to separate several metal cations. Comparing the R f values and colors of the stained spots of known solutions will identify an unknown solution containing two cations.

To separate the constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations (Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ ) only and the constituents should have large difference in R f values.

Chromatography is a modern and sensitive technique used to analyze and separate components from a mixture and purify compounds quickly and efficiently.

The characteristic rate of movement of each substance on the chromatography paper can be determined at a given temperature and for a given solvent as the moving phase moves. This is represented by the R f value of the relative front or retardation factor.

Although the mobile phase (solvent) is the same, the R f values of different compounds are different. In addition, a compound’s R f value may differ in different solvents. Using the following expression, R f values can be calculated.

R f = (frac{distance, travelled, by, the, substance, from, reference , line, (cm)}{distance, travelled, by, the ,solvent, front, from, reference, line, (cm)})

In this experiment the two cations to be separated in this case are colorless. A developer is therefore needed. In this case, ammonium sulphide (NH 4 ) 2 S may be used to locate these ions in chromatographic paper or plate position.

Distance travelled by different components from reference line. (line/cm)

Distance travelled by the solvents from reference line. (line/cm)

There are two types of solvents used in chromatography. One is polar solvent which dissolves polar molecules and the other is non polar solvent used to dissolve non polar molecules.

Chromatography is a simple technique can be handled by a single person. The use of chromatography separates components from complex mixtures. There are different types of equipment for chromatography to separate different compounds.

In chromatography, the Rf value is used to quantify a sample’s retardation amount in a stationary phase relative to a mobile phase.

Russian botanist M.Tswett introduced chromatography in 1906.

The mobile phase is called the developer and it is referred to as the movement of the liquid along the bed.

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