It can also be used to obtain information on the reactivity of metals towards water and acids.
The reactivity series of metals, also known as the activity series, refers to the arrangement of metals in the descending order of their reactivities.
The data provided by the reactivity series can be used to predict whether a metal can displace another in a single displacement reaction. It can also be used to obtain information on the reactivity of metals towards water and acids.
A chart of the reactivity series of common metals is provided below.
Metals tend to readily lose electrons and form cations. Most of them react with atmospheric oxygen to form metal oxides. However, different metals have different reactivities towards oxygen (unreactive metals such as gold and platinum do not readily form oxides when exposed to air).
Another important feature of the activity series is that while travelling down the series, the electron-donating ability of the metals reduces.
The reactivities of metals are tabulated below (in the descending order) along with their corresponding ions. Note that the metals in Red react with cold water, those in Orange cannot react with cold water but can react with acids, and those in Blue only react with some strong oxidizing acids.
Despite being a non-metal, hydrogen is often included in the reactivity series since it helps compare the reactivities of the metals. The metals placed above hydrogen in the series can displace it from acids such as HCl and H 2 SO 4 (since they are more reactive).
Apart from providing insight into the properties and reactivities of the metals, the reactivity series has several other important applications. For example, the outcome of the reactions between metals and water, metals and acids, and single displacement reactions between metals can be predicted with the help of the activity series.
Calcium and the metals that are more reactive than calcium in the reactivity series can react with cold water to form the corresponding hydroxide while liberating hydrogen gas. For example, the reaction between potassium and water yields potassium hy droxide and H 2 gas, as described by the chemical equation provided below.
Therefore, the reactivity series of metals can be used to predict the reactions between metals and water.
Lead and the metals ranking above lead on the activity series form salts when reacted with hydrochloric acid or sulphuric acid. These reactions also involve the liberation of hydrogen gas. The reaction between zinc and sulphuric acid is an example of such a reaction. Here, zinc sulfate and H 2 gas are formed as products. The chemical equation is:
Thus, the reactions between metals and some acids can be predicted with the help of the reactivity series.
The ions of low ranking metals are readily reduced by high ranking metals on the reactivity series. Therefore, low ranking metals are easily displaced by high ranking metals in the single displacement reactions between them.
A great example of such a reaction is the displacement of copper from copper sulfate by zinc. The chemical equation for this reaction is given by:
Zn (s) + CuSO 4 (aq) → ZnSO 4 (aq) + Cu (s)
This concept has several practical applications in the extraction of metals. For example, titanium is extracted from titanium tetrachloride via a single displacement reaction with magnesium. Thus, the reactivity series of metals can also be used to predict the outcome of single displacement reactions.
In order of reactivity the reactivity series shows metals. A metal’s reactivity can be worked out by studying its reactions in both the reactions to competition and displacement.
The elements in the periodic table known as the transition metals are much less reactive, and metals such as gold and platinum endorse the bottom of the list, exhibiting less in the way of chemical reaction with any ordinary reagents.
The metal reactivity sequence, also known as the set of operations, refers to the organization of metals in the ascending order of their reactivities. … Metals tend to lose electrons and form cations quickly. Some lead to the forming of metal oxides with ambient oxygen.
The most reactive elementary group is alkali metals (situated far apart from intermediate metals and noble gases). Cesium is second from the bottom of this group, has 6 shells of electrons, and it matches the features of a reactive atom, making it the most reactive element.
Non-metal properties have a relatively low boiling point, and other non-metals are gases. Likewise, non-metals are poor heat conductors, and solid non-metals are dull and brittle. Many non-metals are strongly reactive, while others are in no way reactive. It depends on the number of electrons in the outer amount of energy.
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H + (Non-Metal, Reference for Comparison)