Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition
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Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Q-1What is natural growth of population? Ans. Natural growth is the difference between birth rate and death rate per 1000 persons. Q 2. Which is the largest linguistic group of India? Ans. Indo-Aryan Q.3 In which activities the proportion of main workers is the highest in India? Ans. Tertiary activities Q-4 Which state has the highest proportion of urban population in India.? Ans- Maharashtra Q-5 Which is principal cause of female migration in India? Ans- Marriage
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Q.1 State the four phases into which Indian demographic history is divided. Ans. The Indian demographic history is divided into the following four phases: 1. Period of stagnant growth rate (before 1921) 2. Period of steady growth rate. (1921 – 1951) 3. Period of rapid growth rate. (1951 – 1981) 4. Period of declining growth rate (after 1981). Q.2 Write three stages of population growth in India. Ans. There are three stages of population growth in India. 1. 1901-1921: – When the growth rate was negligible because birth rates and death rates both were high. High death rate was because of lack of medical facilities, epidemics and World Wars. 2. 1921- 1951: – Growth rate was moderate. Year 1921 is called the year of demographic divide. After 1921 because of medical facilities death rate was brought down. 3. After 1951: – Population growth rate accelerated because of implementation of five-year plans and increased medical facilities lead to the better standard of living, food security and good health. So, death rate was controlled at a faster rate than the birth rate. Q.3 Explain the causes of concentration of dense population in the Satluj-Ganga plains. Ans. The cluster of Satluj-Ganga plains include plains of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, adjoining districts of Haryana, Punjab and Delhi. Here the density varies between 400 and 700 persons per sq. km. it is predominantly a rural tract except eastern and western extremities where urban and industrial development in and around Kolkata and Delhi have crated huge concentration of population. Agriculture is well developed in the upper Ganga and Satluj plains. This is the traditional agricultural belt where density of population is always high. The industrial and urban development in the post-independent period, has superimposed extremely high densities in these plains.
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Q.1 Why is the density of population increasing in every successive census? Ans. The density of population is increasing in every successive census. In 1921, it was only 81 persons’s per sq. km.; it increased to 117 in 1951, 177 persons in 1971, 267 persons in 1991 and 324 persons in 2001. it is expected to be close to 400 persons by 2011. Density increases with increase in population on a fixed land area. The population is increasing in every successive census which is taken after every ten years. During 1921-51 the population increased steadily with the development in medical facilities which reduced deaths caused by epidemics like plague, cholera and malaria.Deaths due to famines declined. The agricultural economy showed improvement, crude death rates declined, but crude birth rates remained high. During 1951-1981 death rates declined faster than the birth- rates. The increase in population continued after 1981. Q.2 How far the trend of birth and death rates in India has determined the growth of population? Ans. The difference between the natural birth-rate and natural death rate is called the natural growth of population during 1921-51 the population increased steadily with the development in medical facilities which reduced deaths caused by epidemics like plague, cholera and malaria. Deaths due to famines declined because of development in means of transport. The agricultural economy showed substantial improvement. Consequently, crude death rates declined, but crude birth rate remained high it is called mortality induced growth. During 1951-81 the population of India nearly doubled. This was due to improvement in health facilities and living conditions of people. Death rates declined faster han the birth rates. This it was fertility- induced growth. After 1981 the birth rates declined rapidly. Declining trend of death rate continued but at a slower rate. The difference between birth and death rates narrowed to 17. Thus, the rate of growth of population started declining gradually. Q.3 What is meant by the term index of population concentration? What are its implications? Ans. The index of population concentration is the proportion of India’s population living in a state of Indian Union. For example, the index of concentration of U.P. is. 1660 Lakh = 1660 × 100 = 16.1% 10270 Lakh 10270 it means 16.1% population of India lives in U.P. Thus, itis ratio between the population of state and total population of the country. The uneven nature of distribution of population becomes more evident when we try to find out the index of concentration. The index of population concentration is 16.1% for U.P. it is 0.15% for Nagaland, 0.22% for Meghalaya and 0.11% for Arunachal Pradesh. The highly crowded state of West Bengal accommodates 8.34% of the country’s population while that share of the agriculturally developed states of Punjab and Haryana is 2.49 and 2.02% respectively. These are interesting facts indeed.
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