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Important Questions Class 12 Political Science Chapter 15 The Crisis Democratic Order

Free PDF download of Important Questions for CBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 15 The Crisis of Democratic Order prepared by expert Political Science teachers from latest edition of CBSE(NCERT) books, On StudySolver.Org to score more marks in CBSE board examination. You can also Download  Political Science Revision Notes Class 12  to help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations. Jump to 4 Marks Questions Jump to 6 Marks Questions jump to 2 Marks Questions jump to Passage-Based Questions

Question 1. Name the political party which came to power at the centre in 1977. (All India 2014) Answer: The Janata Party and its allies came to power at the centre by defeating Congress Party. Question 2. Mention the main reason for the defeat of Congress Party in the election of 1977? (Delhi 2014) Answer: The main reason for the defeat of Congress party was declaration of emergency by the then Prime Minsiter and anti-democratic nature of their government. Question 3. Who led the Railway Strike in 1974? What was its main demand? (All India 2013) Answer: Railway Strike of 1974 was led by George Fernandes. Its main demand was related to bonus and service conditions. Question 4. Students of which two states started agitation against the rising food prices in 1974? (All India 2012) Answer: The students Gujarat and Bihar started agitation against the rising food prices in 1974. Question 5. Why did the magazines like ‘Seminar’ and ‘Mainstream’ choose to close down after the declaration of emergency in 1975? (Delhi 2012) Answer: They choose to close down after the declaration of emergency of 1975 due to censorship of press. Question 6. What was the main demand of the railway men during the railway strike led by George Fernandes in 1974? (Delhi 2012) Answer: Their demand was for bonus and service condition. Question 7. Who was Charu Majumdar? (Delhi 2010) Answer: Charu Majumdar was the leader of the Naxalbari uprising. He was the founder of Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist). He adopted guerrilla warfare. Question 8. Describe any two outcomes of the Naxalite movements, (All India 2010) Answer: Two outcomes of the Naxalite movements were :

Question 9. How many Lok Sabha seats were won by the Janata Party and its allies in the General Elections of March 1977? (All India 2010) Answer: Janata Party and its allies won 330 out of 542 seats in the Lok Sabha. Janata Party itself won 295 seats. Question 10. What was Naxalite movement? (All India 2008) Answer: Marxist-Leninist group of people, believed in violent means to achieve their goals. They distributed the land to landless peasant after forcefully taking it away from rich landlords. This movement was known as Naxalite movement.

Question 1. Match the following meaningfully from the names in Column ‘A’ with the information in Column ‘B’: (All India 2017)

Question 2. Match the following in Column ‘A’ with those in Column ‘B’ in a meaningful way : (All India 2016)

Question 3. Which characteristics made Congress an ideological coalition during the freedom movement of India? (All India 2015) Answer: The inclusive and accommodative nature of Congress made it an ideological coalition during the freedom movement of India. It brought together successfully diverse groups, whose interests were often contradictory. Question 4. What was ‘Shah Commission of Inquiry’? How did the government react to it? (Delhi 2010) Answer: Shah Commission was a commission appointed by the Janata Party government in 1977 to inquire into several aspects of allegations of abuse of authority, excesses and malpractices committed in the wake of the emergency. The Government of India accepted the findings, observations and recommendations contained in the two interim reports. Question 5. Describe any two outcomes of the Naxalite movement. (All indin 2010) Answer: The two outcomes of the Naxalite movement are :

Question 6. Mention any two reasons due to which Janata Party won the election of 1977? (Delhi 2008) Answer: The two reasons were :

Question 1. How did Janata Party make the 1977 elections into a referendum on the emergency imposed in 1975? Explain. (Delhi 2016) Answer: Janata Party made the election of 1977 into a referendum on the emergency imposed in 1975 in following ways :

Question 2. Explain the reasons for the students movement of 1974 in Bihar and role played by Jai Prakash Narayan in this movement. (Delhi 2014) Answer: Reasons for the students movement of 1974 in Bihar are following

Role played by Jai Prakash Narayan in this movement is stated in the points below :

Question 3. Evaluate the consequences of declaration of emergency in 1975. (All India 2014) OR Explain any two lessons learnt from the emergency imposed in 1975. (All India 2014) OR Explain any four consequences of emergency declared on 25th June, 1975. (Delhi 2012) OR What important lessons can be drawn for Indian Democracy from the declaration of the Emergency of 25th June, 1975? (Delhi 2009) Answer: Consequences of emergency were :

Important lessons learnt from emergency are :

Question 4. What reasons, do you think, were responsible for the declaration of emergency in 1975? Examine any two reasons. (All India 2013) OR Why was the emergency declared in India on 25th June, 1975? (All India 2011) OR Describe any four circumstances for proclamation of emergency in 1975? (Delhi 2008: All Indin 2008) Answer: The circumstances which led to the proclamation of emergency were (any four) :

Question 5. Why is the ‘emergency’ and the period around it known as the period of constitutional crisis? Explain. (Delhi 2013) Answer: The emergency and the period around it can be described as a period of constitutional crisis because it had its origin in the constitutional battle over the Jurisdiction of the Parliament and the judiciary. During emergency government gets extra powers. It gains the power to suspend the Fundamental Rights of the citizens. Measures like preventive detention could be used by government. Right to move the court for the restoration of Fundamental Rights were taken away. It was also a period of political crisis because the party in power had absolute majority and yet, its leadership decided to suspend the democratic process. Question 6. How did the Emergency of 1975 benefit the Indian democratic set up? (All India 2009) Answer: The Emergency of 1975 benefitted the Indian democratic set up in following manner :

Question 1. Examine the conditions responsible for the growth of Naxalite movement in India. Suggest ways and means to crush it. (All India 2016) OR What is ‘Naxalite movement’? Evaluate its role in Indian Politics. (Delhi 2009) OR Evaluate the role of the ‘Naxalite movement’ in India, (All India 2009) Answer: Naxalite movement is a kind of guerrilla groups in India, mostly associated with the Communist Party of India (Maoist). The term Naxal derives from the name of the village Naxalbari in West Bengal, where the movement had its origin. Naxalite Movement in India In 1967, a peasant uprising took place in the Naxalbari police station area of Darjeeling hills (West Bengal). The Communists argued that democracy in India was a shame and decided to adopt a strategy of protracted guerrilla warfare in order to lead to a revolution. Role of Naxalite Movement in Indian Politics Naxalite movement gave impetus to the demand of equal distribution of land. Their demand are region specific and they have rejuvanated the tribal movements in India. Due to such movements separatism has become a burning issue. Their violent nature has posed risk on the socio-economic-politic structure of India. Measures to Control Socio-economic issues should be solved in region specific manner keeping in view that India is a land of diversity and nature of problems varies from region to region. There should be strong political will to keep away regionalism and separatism from politics. Question 2. Why is emergency considered to be one of the most controversial episodes in Indian politics? (All India 2016) OR Assess the controversies relating to the declaration of Emergency in 1975 in India. Answer: Emergency is one of the most controversial episodes in Indian politics. There are varying assessments of the need and lessons learnt from the emergency: Condition of Emergency The Constitution simply mentioned ‘internal disturbances’ as the reason for declaring emergency. Before 1975, emergency was never proclaimed on this ground. The government argued that in a democracy, the opposition parties must allow the elected ruling party to govern according to its policies. It felt that frequent recourse to agitations, protests and collective action are not good for democracy. Supporters of Indira Gandhi also held that in a democracy, you cannot continuously have extra-parliamentary politics targeting the government. This leads to instability and distracts the administration from its routine task of ensuring development. On the other hand, the critics of the emergency argued that ever since the freedom movement, Indian politics had a history of popular struggles. JP and many other opposition leaders felt that in a democracy, people had the right to publicly protest against the government. The Bihar and Gujarat agitations were mostly peaceful and non-violent. Assessment of Emergency Most of promises by the government remained unfulfilled, that these, were simply meant to divert attention from the excesses that were taking place. They question the use of preventive detention on such a large scale. The Shah Commission estimated that nearly one lakh eleven thousand people were arrested under preventive detention laws. Severe restrictions were put on the press, sometimes without proper legal sanctions. Lessons of Emergency

Question 3. Analyse the circumstances responsible for the declaration of a state of emergency in India on 25th June, 1975. (Delhi 2016) OR Examine any six reasons for the imposition of emergency in India 1975. (All India 2014) OR ‘Was the declaration of emergency in 1975 necessary?’ Support your answer with any three suitable arguments. (Delhi 2013) OR Why was the national emergency declared in India on 25th June, 1975? Analyse any three consequences of this emergency. (Delhi 2000) OR Analyse any three reasons for imposing emergency on 25th June, 1975. Did the government misuse its emergency powers? Give any three arguments in support of your answers. (Delhi 2011) OR What factors led to the declaration of internal emergency in India on 25th June, 1975? (Delhi 2009) OR Write a brief note on the background leading to the declaration of emergency on 25th June, 1975 in India. (Delhi (C) 2008) Answer: The circumstances which led to the proclamation of emergency were (any four) :

Question 4. Analyse any three lessons learnt from the emergency of 1975. (Delhi 2015) OR Evaluate any three consequences of the emergency imposed in 1975. (Delhi 2014) OR Highlight any six consequences of the emergency of 1975. (All India 2014) OR Explain any three lessons learnt from the emergency imposed in 1975. (Delhi 2013) OR “The emergency declared on 25th June, 1975 is seen as a blur on Indian democracy.” Assess its impact on the party system in India, (HOTS; Delhi 2009) Answer: The emergency declared on 25th June, 1975 had a great impact on India’s party system. Many changes had been made to the Constitution and reality come in front of people. For consequences/lessons, Consequences of emergency were:

Important lessons learnt from emergency are :

Question 5. Assess any three happenings which were responsible for the downfall of the Congress Party in the 1977 elections. (All India 2014) OR “The opposition to emergency could keep the Janata Party together only for a while.” Evaluate. (HOTS; All India 2009) Answer: Three happenings which were responsible for the downfall of the Congress Party in the 1977 election were :

The opposition to emergency could keep the Janata Party together only for a while because the party lacked direction, leadership and a common programme. The Janata Party Government could not bring about a fundamental change in policies from those pursued by Congress. The Janata Party split and the government which was led by Morarji Desai lost its majority in less than 18 months. Question 6. Explain any six factors responsible for the defeat of the Congress Party in 1977 elections. (All India 2013) OR “The 1977 elections for the first time saw the opposition coming to power at the centre.” Examine any six reasons for this change, (HOTS; Delhi 2012) OR “Governments that are perceived to be anti-democratic are severely punished by the voters.” Explain the statement with reference to the emergency period of 1975-77. (HOTS; All India, 2010, Delhi 2008) OR “Government that seem to be unstable and quarrelsome are severely punished by the voters.” Explain with reference to Janata Party rule. (HOTS; All India 2008) Answer: In January 1977, after 18 months of emergency, government decided to hold the election. Decision was quick, parties did not have enough time for preparation. Janata Party which had formed during pre-emergency period by coalition of various anti-Congress and anti-emergency parties decided to fight against Congress. Result of 1977 came out with a big surprise to the country. For the first time since, independence Congress had lost in centre. Janata Party won 330 out of 542 seats. The main reason behind Congress defeat in 1977 were :

Question 7. What were the major conflicts between the Parliament and the Judiciary during the leadership of Indira Gandhi? (All indie 2011 ) OR Analyse the conflict between the Judiciary and the Parliament in India in 1973. (All India to 2008) Answer: This period also witnessed tensions in the relationship between the Parliament and the Judiciary. The major conflicts between the Parliament and Judiciary during the leadership of Indira Gandhi were :

Question 8. Highlight the legacy of Janata Government which came into power after end of the Emergency of 1975-77. Delhi 2009 Answer: Janata Party Government came to power after the 1977 election. It was the first party after independence who defeated Congress in the Lok Sabha elections. The Congress could win only 154 seats. Janata Party and its allies won 330 out of the 542 seats. The legacy of Janata Government which came into power after emergency of 1977 is highlighted in points below :

Question 9. Explain the findings of Shah Commission constituted after the end of emergency of 1975. Delhi 2009 Answer: In May 1977, the Janata Party Government appointed Shah Commission of inquiry headed by justice JC Shah, retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India. It was appointed to look into the misuse of authority by government and unethical practises like demolition of jhuggis, forced sterilisation etc which were conducted during emergency. The commission gathered various evidences and witnesses to give testimonies. The findings of Shah Commission were :

Picture Based Question Question 1. Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the following questions (Delhi 2012) (i) Identify and name the person holding in his hand , the placard ‘Save Democracy’. (ii) In your opinion, the group of five persons belongs to which political party? (iii) According to the group of five, what are the intentions of the person sitting on ‘Dharna’? (iv) Which issues responsible for the downfall of democracy are highlighted in the cartoon? Answer: (i) Jai Prakash Narayan is holding the placard ‘Save Democracy’. (ii) Congress Party. (iii) Support democracy, create chaos, grab power. (iv) The issue responsible for the downfall of democracy highlighted in the cartoon are corruption, lawlessness, violence, etc.

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(a) A Member of Parliament from 1952 till his death

(b) Symbol of opposition during the emergency of 1975

(b) Symbol of opposition during the emergency of 1975

(a) A Member of Parliament from 1952 till his death

(i) Head of the commission of Enquiry

(ii) Deputy Prime Minister of India from 1967 to 1969

(iii) Deputy Prime Minister of India from 1977 – 79

(iv) Union Minister of India from 1952 – 1977

(i) Head of the commission of Enquiry

(ii) Deputy Prime Minister of India from 1967 to 1969

(iii) Deputy Prime Minister of India from 1977 – 79

(iv) Union Minister of India from 1952 – 1977