Important Questions Class 12 Political Science Chapter 14 Challenges Restoration Congress System
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Question 1. Which major factor was responsible for the dramatic victory of Indira Gandhi in 1971 elections? (Delhi 2015) Answer: The major factor responsible for dramatic victory of Indira Gandhi in 1971 elections was ‘Garibi Hatao’ slogan which generated strong responses in landless laboures, Dalits, Adivasis, minorities, women and the unemployed youth. Question 2. Which two political parties were the major partners in the ruling alliance after the 1971 General Elections to the Lok Sabha. (All India 2014) Answer: Congress (R) and Communist Party of India (CPI) were major ruling alliance partners after the 1971 General Election. Question 3. Who represent Congress (O) and Congress (K) after the split of the Congress Party? (Delhi 2014) Answer: Syndicate represents Congress (O) while Indira Gandhi represents Congress (R). Question 4. Who was the official Congress candidate for the post of President of India in 1969? (Delhi 2014) Answer: Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy. Question 5. What is meant by ‘Congress Syndicate’? (Delhi 2014, 2013) OR What is meant by ‘Syndicate with regard to the split in Congress? (All India 2010) Answer: ‘Syndicate’ refers to a group of powerful and influential leaders from within Congress. Question 6. What is meant by ‘Privy Purse’? (Delhi 2013) Answer: Privy Purse was a grant or allowance given to the families of princely rulers on the basis of the extent of their property. Question 7. After the death of Lai Bahadur Shastri, which two leaders of the Congress Party contested against one another to become leader of the Congress Parliamentary Party? (Delhi 2013) OR After the death of Lai Bahadur Shastri on 10th January 1966, how did Indira Gandhi become the next Prime Minister? (All India 2010) Answer: After intense competition between Morarji Desai and Indira Gandhi she was backed by senior party leaders. Question 8. After which General Election in India did Congress Party lose its dominance for the first time at the centre? (Delhi 2013) Answer: After fourth General Election 1967, Congress Party lost its dominance for the first time at the centre. Question 9. Name the two main contenders who contested the election for the post of President of India in 1969. (All India 2013) Answer: Shree Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy and W Giri. Question 10. The results of which elections were called ‘Political earthquake’? (All India 2012) OR Why are the results of 1967 elections in India called ‘political earthquake’? (Delhi 2010) Answer: The results of 1967 elections jolted the Congress at both the national and state level. Congress managed to get majority in the Lok Sabha but with its lowest tally of seats and share of votes since 1952. Hence, it is called ‘political earthquake’. Question 11. What is meant by defection? (All India 2012, 2008) Answer: Defection means an elected representative leaves the party on whose symbol he/she was elected and joins another party. Question 12. Name the leaders who gave the following slogans (Delhi 2012) (i) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan (ii) Garibi Hatao Answer: (i) Lai Bahadur Shastri (ii) Indira Gandhi Question 13. Which theoretical argument did Rammanohar Lohia give in defence of non-congressism? (Delhi 2012) Answer: Congress rule was undemocratic and opposed to the interests of ordinary poor people. Question 14. Why did the senior Congress leaders support Indira Gandhi as Prime Minister in 1966? (Delhi 2010) OR Why did the senior leaders of Congress decide to back Mrs Indira Gandhi for the post of Prime Minister in 1966? (All India [C] 2008, Delhi 2008) Answer: Because she had been Congress President in the past and had also been Union Minister for information in the Shastri cabinet. Question 15. Correct and rewrite the statement given below: Gaya Lai, an MP from the Haryana Legislature in 1967, changed his party twice in a fortnight. (All India 2010) Answer: Gaya Lai, an MLA from Haryana Legislature in 1967, changed his party thrice in a fortnight. Question 16. Write the names of the two successive Presidents of India after the death of Dr Zakir Hussain. (Delhi 2010) Answer: N. Sanjeeva Reddy and VV Giri. Question 17. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words Indira Gandhi had to deal with them a group of powerful and influential leaders from within the (All India 2010) Answer: Indira Gandhi had to deal with the Syndicate, a group of powerful and influential leaders from within the Congress. Question 18. Mention the names of any two important leaders of the Congress party who were defeated in the 1967 General Elections. (All India 2010) Answer: The two important leaders of the congress Party who were defeated in 1967 General Elections were Kamraj in Tamil Nadu and SK Pa til in Maharashtra. Question 19. What is the meaning of ‘dangerous decade’ in the context of Indian politics? (All India (C) 2008) Answer: The 1960s were called ‘dangerous decade’ in Indian politics as many challenges and unresolved problems like poverty inequality communal and regional division etc were thought could lead to failure of democratic project or disintegration of country.
Question 1. Assess the role of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad towards maintaining communal harmony in India. (All India 2016) Answer: The following points assess the role of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad towards maintaining communal harmony in India :
Question 2. Who signed the Tashkent Agreement and when? (Dehli 2012) Answer: Tashkent Agreement was signed between Shastri and Muhammad Ayub Khan, the then President of Pakistan in 1966. Question 3. What was the main reason behind the split in Congress in 1969? (All India 2011) Answer: Reasons behind the split in Congress in 1969 were:
Question 4. What does ‘Aaya Ram-Gaya Ram’ stand for the Indian politics? (Delhi 2011) Answer: It describes the practice of frequently changing loyalty and alignment by legislators. Question 5. Which constitutional procedure was adopted in India to abolish the ‘Privy Purse’ in 1971? (All India 2010) Answer: The ‘Privy Purse’ was abolished under 26th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1971. Question 6. What is meant by ‘Grand Alliance’. (All India 2010) Answer: Grand Alliance was a group of non-communist, non-congress opposition parties formed in 1970 elections against Indira Gandhi. Question 7. List any two challenges faced by India during Lai Bahadur Shastri’s Government, (All India to 2000) Answer: Two challenges faced by India were :
Question 8. Mention any two problems which were faced by the Government of Indira Gandhi during 1969-1971. (All India to 2008) Answer: Two problems faced by Indira Gandhi government during 1964-1971 were :
Question 1. What does defection stand for in Indian politics? Highlight any two demerits of this practice. (Delhi 2014) Answer: Defection was a factor in 1967 elections. It played an important role in formation and collapsing of government. Defection displays the behaviour of an elected representative who leaves the party on whose symbol he/she won and joins another party. Two demerits of this practice were :
Question 2. Describe the organisation of the Congress Party as a social and ideological coalition, (All India 2014) Answer: Social and ideological coalition of the Congress Party were the following :
Question 3. What factors were responsible for the revival of the Congress Party in India in 1971? (Delhi 2011) OR Examine the factors which helped in the restoration of the Congress party after its split in 1969. (All India 2011) OR How did the outcome of 1971 elections help in the restoration of Congress? (Delhi 2009) OR Highlight the main outcomes of the General Elections of 1971. (Delhi (C) 2008) Answer: The main outcomes of the General Elections of 1971 which were responsible for restoration or revival of Congress were the following :
Question 4. Why was the year 1967 considered as landmark year in India’s political and electoral history? Explain. (All India 2010) Answer: The fourth general election held in 1967 was the first election to be held without Nehru. Congress was dominant party before 1967, but scenario was likely to change after 1967’s election. Several non-Congress parties joined together to bring Congress down. They realised that their disintegration kept Congress in power. So, they joined to form a big alliance called Samyukt Vidhayak Dal. Congress still managed to win in Lok Sabha election, but with the poorest performance ever. Congress lost in many states. Influencial leaders of Congress lost their position. Many Congress leaders left the party in order to join the other party. Local politics gained momentum. In Tamil Nadu, a non-congress party won on its own for the first time. 1967 elections showcased the new element which never came into light. Defection and coalition played an important role and new elements were in the scence of electoral politics. This situation could not have remained isolated from party politics in the country. The opposition parties got together and formed anti-Congress fronts in some states. This strategy was given the name of non-Congressism by Ram Manohar Lohia. He argued that Congress rule was undemocratic and opposed the interests of ordinary people. Therefore, the non-Congress parties were necessary for reclaiming democracy for the people. Question 5. What is meant by ‘Privy Purse’? Why did Indira Gandhi insist on abolishing them in 1970? (All India 2009) Answer: At the time of dissolution of Princely States, the rulers of Princely States had been assured that their families would get the right to retain certain private property and based on heredity or government allowances would also be given by the extent of revenue and potential of the merging states. This was called as privy purse. Indira Gandhi insisted an abolition of privy purses because :
Question 6. The phrase ‘Aaya Ram, Gaya Ram’ signifies which concept? Explain its impact on the Indian political system. (Delhi 2009) Answer: The expression ‘Aaya Ram, Gaya Ram’ became popular in the political vocabulary in India to describe the practice of frequent floor-crossing by legislators. The phrase became the subject of numerous jokes and cartoons. Ultimately, the Constitution was amended to prevent defections. Impact on the Indian political system are as follows :
Question 7. Describe any two advantages and two disadvantages of ‘coalition’ Government in India. (Delhi 2009) Answer: Advantages of coaliton are as follows:
Disadvantages of coalition are as follows :
Question 8. Why is the decade of sixties labelled as a ‘dangerous decade’? (All India 2008) Answer: After the death of Nehru, serious doubt were raised by many ou tsider whether India’s democratic experiment will survive after Nehru. It was feared that like so many other newly independent countries, India too would not be able to manage a democratic sc ccession. A failure to do so, it was fe. red, could lead to a political role for tha army. Besides, there were doubts it the new leadership would be able to handle the multiple crises that awaited a solution. The 1960s were labelled as the ‘dangerous decade, when unresolved problems like poverty, inequality, communal and regional divisions etc. could lead to a failure of the democratic project or even the disintegration of the country. Question 9. “The early seventies of the 20th century were very favourable for Mrs. Indira Gandhi”. Do you agree? Support your answer with any four arguments. (HOTS; All India (c) 2008) Answer: Yes, I agree with the arguments:
Question 10. What do the following relate to? (Delhi 2008) (i) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan (ii) Garibi Hatao (iii) Indira Hatao (iv) Grand Alliance Answer: (i) This was a slogan given by Lai Bahadur Shastri in 1965 when India was facing food crisis and a war with Pakistan. (ii) Indira Gandhi gave this slogan in 1971. With this slogan Indira Gandhi made a political strategy to build an independent nationwide political support. (iii) This was an anti-Indira slogan during 1971 election. (iv) This was an alliance before 1971 elections. In this alliance non-communist, non-congress opposition parties formed a group known as Grand Alliance.
Question 1. Analyse the issue ‘India vs the Syndicate’; What type of challenges did the issue pose before Indira Gandhi? (All India 2017) OR What does the term ‘Syndicate’ mean in the context of the Congress Party of the sixties? What role did the Syndicate play in the Congress party? (Delhi 2008) Answer: Syndicates refer to a group of influential, powerful and leading leaders of Congress. They had real organisational power with them. They played crucial in the establishment of Shastri and Indira Gandhi as Prime Minister. Indira Gandhi sought their support to come into power. It was expected that after installation, Indira Gandhi would follow their advice. Their advise proved to be crucial in Indira’s Cabinet members selection and in the formation and implementation of policies. But situation changed and Indira’s negligent behaviour towards syndicates annoyed them. Polarisation between them increased, finally, leading to split, Congress split into two parts. Syndicate lead Congress was named Congress (O) and Indira Gandhi led Congress was named Congress (R). But after split syndicate led Congress claimed that real organisational power vested in them. They were the think tank and real decision-makers. In 1971 elections, it became clear that still Indira Gandhi possessed the real power and Congress prestige. Question 2. Examine the major changes that the country witnessed at the time of fourth general election in 1967. (All India 2016) OR Examine the grave economic crisis prior to the fourth general elections of 1967. Assess the verdict of the electorate based on the election. (Delhi 2010) OR How did the fourth General Elections (1967) in India change the dynamics of Indian politics? (All India 2009) Answer: The expression ‘Aaya Ram, Gaya Ram’ became popular in the political vocabulary in India to describe the practice of frequent floor-crossing by legislators. The phrase became the subject of numerous jokes and cartoons. Ultimately, the Constitution was amended to prevent defections. Impact on the Indian political system are as follows :
Question 3. Analyse the circumstances that favoured Indira Gandhi to become Prime Minister after the death of Lai Bahadur Shastri. Mention any four achievements of Indira Gandhi that made her popular as a Prime Minister. (Delhi 2016) OR Analyse any three factors which enhanced the popularity of Indira Gandhi in the early 1970s. (All India 2014) OR Analyse any three major factors which led the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government in the early 1970s. (Delhi 2013) OR What were the factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government in the early 1970s? (All India 2008) OR Explain any six factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government in the early 1970s. (Delhi 2012) Answer: Congress faced the challenge of political succession again on 10th January 1966, Shastri’s Prime Ministership came to an abrupt end when he suddenly expired in Tashkent. The senior leaders of the party decided to support Indira Gandhi. However, the decision was not unanimous. There was intense contest between Morarji Desai and Indira Gandhi. The contest was resolved through a secret ballot among the MP’s of the Congress. Indira Gandhi got the support of more than two-thirds of the congress party’s MP’s. The six factors that led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government in early 1970’s were :
Question 4. Explain any three causes of the split in the Congress Party in 1969. (All India 2015) OR Examine the three main reasons responsible for the split in the Congress Party during 1969. (Delhi 2014) OR Examine the major issues which led to the split of Congress Party in 1969. (All India 2014) OR Examine any six factors which were responsible for split of the Congress in 1969. (All India 2011, All India (C) 2008) OR Explain the major issues which were responsible for the formal split of the Congress Party in 1969. (All India 2011) Answer: The six factors responsible for the split of the Congress party in 1969 were as follows:
Question 5. Assess any three challenges that the Congress Party had to face during the period from 1964 to 1971. (All India 2014) Answer: The three challenges that the Congress Party had to face during the period from 1964 to 1971 were : 1. Political succession After Nehru, who would be the leader. Some outsiders had doubts that Indian democracy will not survive meanwhile party President K Kamraj, suggested Lai Bahadur Shastri’s name as the Prime Minister, thus he became the second Prime Minister of India. After an abrupt end of Shastri led to challenge of political succession. This time there was intense competition between Morarji Desai and Indira Gandhi. Finally, Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister. She set out to gain control over the party and to demostrate her leadership skills. 2. Emergence of non-Congressism Opposition parties realised that the division of their votes kept the Congress in power. So that they joined together to form anti-Congress fronts. This strategy was named as non-Congressism by Ram Manohar Lohia. The result of 1967 elections jolted the Congress at both centre and state levels. Many elite leaders of Congress parties came together to form joint legislative parties (Samyukt Vidhayak Dal). In most of the State Congress lost and coalition government was formed. 3. Split in the Congress Indira Gandhi had to face internal challenge that was syndicate, a group of influential Congress leaders who were in control of the party’s organisation. Gradually she attempted to assert her position within the government and the party. She chose her trusted group of advisers from outside the party. Slowly and carefully she sidelined the ‘Syndicate’. Meanwhile President of India Dr Zakir Hussain was dead, the post of president fell vacant. Despite of Mrs. Gandhi reservations, the syndicate nominated N Sanjeeva Reedy’s name as President. But Indira Gandhi supported 4. Giri as an independent candidate. The election ultimately, resulted in the victory of W Giri and the defeat of Sanjeeva Reddy the official congress candidate. The defeat of the official Congress candidate formalised the split in the party Congress (O) was syndicate supported party and Congress (R) was Indira Gandhi party. Question 6. Mention any six steps taken for the restoration of dominance of the Congress Party after the 1971 elections, (All India 2013) OR “With two successive election victories at the centre as well as in the states in 1971, the dominant position of the Congress Party was restored.” Do you agree? State any three arguments in support of your answer. HOTS: All India 2010 Answer: The factors responsible for the restoration of the Congress Party after its split in 1969 were : 1. Abolition of privy purse The Government of India tried to bring a Constitutional Amendment in 1970 to abolish privy purse. Because Indira Gandhi supported the demand of abolishing privy purses. After 1971 elections the Constitution was amended to remove legal obstacles for abolition of privy purse. 2. Garibi hatao After spliting, the new Congress had some positive agenda. Indira Gandhi said that the opposition alliance had only one comsmon programme i.e. Indira hatao. In contrast to this, she put forward positive programme captured in the famous slogan: garibi hatao. Through it, she tried to generate a support base among the disadvantaged especially among the landless labourers, Dalits and Adivasis, minorities, women and the unemployed youth. The slogan garibi hatao gave her a strong independent nationwide political support base. 3. Major policy initiative She launched a series of initiatives to give the government policy a left orientation. She got the Congress Working Committee do adopt a Ten Point Programme. This programme induded social control of banks, nationalisation of general insurance, ceiling on urban property and income, public distribution of food grains, land reforms and provision of house sites to the rural poor, 4. 1971’s war The crisis in East Pakistan and the Indo-Pak War led to the establishment of Bangladesh. Indira Gandhi’s statemenship was admired. She was seen not only protector but also a strong nationalist leader. Question 7. Evaluate any three factors which were responsible for Indira Gandhi’s achieving a thumping majority in 1971 Lok Sabha elections. (Delhi 2011) Answer: The 1971 elections were a political fight between Congress (R) and non-Congress and non-Communist parties. Congress (O) was just a part of it. It was believed that Congress (O) had real organisational strength of Congress party. Congress opposition parties formed an electoral alliance called as the Grand Alliance. Grand Alliance were SSP, PSP, Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Swatantra Party and the Bhartiya Kranti Dal. Major objective behind the formation of Grand Alliance was to prevent Indira Gandhi to form a government. Now in 1971 elections, Indira Gandhi had to face a strong opposition from outside parties and a split part of Congress. The three factors which were responsible for thumping majority of Indira Gandhi’s Government in 1971 Lok Sabha elections were :
Question 8. Examine the main factors responsible for the rise and fall of the Congress Party’s dominance in India. (All India 2009) Answer: The main factors responsible for the rise of Congress Party’s dominance were :
The main factors responsible for the fall of Congress Party’s dominance were: 1. Since 1969, the Congress party had starting shedding its character as an umbrella party which accommodated leaders and workers of different ideological dispensations and view points. The Congress party now identified itself with a particular ideology, claiming to be the only socialist and pro-poor party. Thus with the early nineteen seventies, the Congress’s political success depended on attracting people on the basis of sharp social and ideological divisions and the appeal of one leader, Indira Gandhi. 2. With the change in the nature of the Congress party, other opposition parties relied more and more on what is known in Indian politics as ‘non-Congressism’. They also realised the need to avoid division of non-congress votes in the election. This factor played a major role in the elections on 1977. 3. In an indirect manner, the issue of welfare of the backward castes also began to dominate politics since 1977. The results of 1977 elections were at least partly due to a shift among the backward castes of North India. 4. Following the Lok Sabha elections, many states also held Assembly elections in 1977. Again, the Northern States elected non-Congress governments in which the leaders of the backward castes played an important role. 5. The Emergency and the period around it can be described as a period of constitutional crisis because it had its origins in the constitutional battle over the jurisdiction of the Parliament. On the other hand, it was also a period of political crisis. It was one of the prominent cause for the fall of the Congress Party’s dominance. Question 9. Examine the factors which helped W Giri to become the President of India. (Delhi [C] 2000) Answer: The factors which helped W Giri to become the President of India were :
Picture Based Question Question 10. Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follows. (i) To which year does the cartoon refer? (ii) Name the person for whom this comment Anya Ram Gaya Ram’ was made, (All India 2008) Answer: (i) Given cartoon refers to the year of 1967 when defection become a important feature of Indian politics, (ii) The comment ‘Aaya Ram, Gaya Ram’ was made to refer Gaya Lai, an MLA from Haryana who changed his party thrice in a fortnight. Map-Based Questions Question 1. In the given political outline map of India, six stages have been indicate by A, B, C, D, E and F. Identify them with the help of the information given below and write their correct names in your answer-book alongwith their respective serial number and the alphabet concerned as per the following table (i) Two states where the Congress Party got majority and formed the government. (ii) Two states where the breakaway Congress legistators played on important role in installing non-Congress governments. (iii) A states where Congress Party did not get majority but formed the government with the help of other parites. (iv) The state where ‘Popular United Front’ cames into power Answer:
Question 2. Study the map given regarding Assembly Election Results, 1967 and answer the following question: In which four states of the country, did the Congress not get a majority in the state legislatures? (All India 2008) Answer: Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal were the four state were Congress did not get majority in the 1967 elections.
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