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Important Questions Class 12 Political Science Chapter 12 Politics Planned Development

Free PDF download of Important Questions for CBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 12 Politics of Planned Development prepared by expert Political Science teachers from latest edition of CBSE(NCERT) books, On StudySolver.Org to score more marks in CBSE board examination. You can also Download  Political Science Revision Notes Class 12  to help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations. Jump to 4 Marks Questions Jump to 6 Marks Questions jump to 2 Marks Questions jump to Value Based Questions jump to Passage-Based Questions

Question 1. Who is the ex-officio chairperson of the Planning Commission of India? (All India 2013) Answer: Prime Minister of India Question 2. What was ‘Bombay Plan’? (All India 2013) Answer: A section of the big industrialists got together in 1944 and drafted a joint proposal for setting up a planned economy in the country. It was called the Bombay Plan. They wanted the state to take major initiatives in industrial and other economic investments. Question 3. What was significant about PC Mahalanobis? (All India 2013) OR Who was PC Mahalanobis? (Delhi 2009) Answer: P. C. Mahalanobis was the founder of Indian Statistical Institute (1931). He was chief architect of Second Five Year Plan. He supported rapid industrialisation and active role of the public sector. Question 4. Who was popularly known as ‘the milkman of India’? (All India 2013) Answer: Verghese Kurein was popularly known as the milkman of India. Question 5. What was the main objective of the second Five Year Plan? (All indin 2012) Answer: The main objective of the second five year plan was quick structural transformation by rapid industrialisation. Question 6. When was India’s New Economic Policy launched? Who was its chief architect? (All India 2009) Answer: India’s New economic policy was launched in 1999. Its chief architect was Dr. Manmohan Singh.

Question 1. Differentiate between the capitalist and the socialist models of development. (HOTS; All India 2014) Answer: The capitalist economic model allows free market conditions to drive innovation and wealth creation. The socialist-based economy incorporates elements of centralised economic planning, utilised to ensure conformity and to encourage equality of opportunity and economic outcome. Question 2. Differentiate between the main objective of the First and the Second Five Year PlAnswer: (Delhi 2014) Answer: There were some differences between First and Second Five Year Plan which are elaborated below (any two) :

Question 3. What is meant by decentralised planning? (All India 2014, 2012) Answer: Decentralised planning is a strategy to involve people directly in development activities through voluntary citizens’ organisations. The state also takes initiatives to involve people in making plants at the panchayat, block and district level. Question 4. Mention any two merits of Green Revolution. (All India 2013) Answer: The two merits of Green Revolution were :

Thus, first socially, then politically and economically the status of farmers in these states was risen. Question 5. Which are the two models of development? Which model of development was adopted by India? (Delhi 2013) Answer: The two models of development are :

Question 6. Write the meaning and importance of economic planning in the Indian context. (All India 2009) Answer: Planning always plays a crucial role in the economic development of the country. Economic Planning is a strategy to achieve the goal of economic development by pursuing a policy of planned economy. Planning opens new opportunities for development for people and also enhance the standard of living.

Question 1. Evaluate the major outcomes of the Indian model of mixed economy. (All India 2016) OR Critically examine the major outcomes of the Indian model of mixed economy. (HOTS; Delhi 2016) Answer: The major outcomes of the Indian model of mixed economy :

Question 2. Which two models of modern development were there before India on the eve of independence? Which model did India decide to choose and why? (Delhi 2015) Answer: On the eve of Independence, India had two models of modern development before it, they were the liberal-capitalist model as in much of Europe and the US and the socialist model as in the USSR. India decided to choose socialist model of USSR because :

Question 3. Describe the strategy adopted by the Government of India to promote the Green Revolution, (All India 2015) Answer: Following strategies were adopted by Government of India to promote the Green Revolution :

Question 4. Explain any two merits and two demerits each of the Green Revolution. (Delhi 2015) OR List any two merits and two demerits of the Green Revolution. (Delhi 2014) OR Highlight any two positive and two negative outcomes of the Green Revolution. (All India 2010) Answer: For merits of Green Revolution The two merits of Green Revolution were :

Thus, first socially, then politically and economically the status of farmers in these states was risen. Demerit/Negative Outcomes

Therefore the middleman created a condition due to which farmers were impoverished. The political strength of the middleman also increased. Question 5. State any two differences between the First Five Year Plan and the Second Five Year Plan. (All India 2015. Delhi 2013) Answer: There were some differences between First and Second Five Year Plan which are elaborated below (any two) :

Question 6. Describe any four consequences of the Green Revolution? (Delhi 2015) Answer: For merits of Green Revolution The two merits of Green Revolution were :

Thus, first socially, then politically and economically the status of farmers in these states was risen. Demerit/Negative Outcomes

Therefore the middleman created a condition due to which farmers were impoverished. The political strength of the middleman also increased. Question 7. Match the following: (Delhi, 2012)

Question 8. Match the following: (Delhi 2012)

Question 9. How was the Planning Commission of India set up? Mention its scope of work. (All India 2010) Answer: The Planning Commission was set-up by a simple resolution passed by Government of India in March 1950. The Planning Commission has a advisory role and its recommendations become effective when government approves them. Scope of Work of Planning Commission The Planning Commission drafts the Five Year Plans for India keeping all resources in mind when it is drafted. The resolution which set-up the commission defined the scope of its work in the following terms:

Question 6. What led the policy-makers to reduce the importance of state in India’s economy from 1980s onwards? (Delhi 200B; All India 2008) Answer: Following factors led to reduce the importance of state in India’s economy from 1980s onwards:

Question 1. Examine the different areas of agreement and disagreement with respect to the model of economic development to be adopted in India after independence, (HOTS; Delhi 2016) Answer: Agreement of Economic Model After independence, there were lot of discussion with respect to the model of economic development to be adopted in India. ‘Development’ was about becoming more ‘modern’ and modern was about becoming more like the industrialised countries of the West. Indian planners did not follow any of the two known models of development i.e. capitalist model of development and socialist model of development. India adopted both elements of these models that is why Indian economy is called Mixed Economy. Private sectors and public sectors flourished well. In India, state controlled the key industries and provided industrial infrastructure. Disagreement of the Economic Model A mixed economy was criticised by many scholars and they argued that the planners had refused the private sector with enough space and the stimulus to grow. The enlarged public sector provided powerful vested interests that built enough hurdles for private capital by way of installing the license and permit systems. Some critics have opinion that the era of public sectors where poverty did not decline even number of poor were adversally increased. The public sector did not spend much money on health care and education. The state intervened into areas where private sector made profits. The policy of state restricted import of goods and production in the domestic market. Little or no companion left the private sector with no incentive to improve their products and make them cheaper. After all this criticism government adopted the policy of globalisation, liberalisation and privatisation in 1991. This policy is called new economy policy where private firms enjoy their independence and government interferes only in economic matters. Question 2. Assess the outcomes of the early phase of planned development in India. (All India 2016,2013) OR Assess the outcome of planned development towards the foundation of India’s economic growth and land reforms. Delhi 2011 Answer: In 1938, Indian National Congress set-up a Planning Committee to formulate a plan for the development of India’s future. After independence in April, 1951 India adopted the planned development procedure. It was felt that the procedure of planned development created a sound economic development and land reform. Some points which relates with the planned development towards the foundation of India’s economic growth and land reforms are mentioned below :

Question 3. Describe briefly the composition and any four functions of the Planning Commission of India. (All India 2011) Answer: Composition of Planning Commission :

Four Functions of the Planning Commission are :

Note:  Planning commission no more exists today. It has been replaced by NITI Aayog (National Institution for Transforming India). Question 4. What were the early initiatives taken by the Planning Commission for building a new India? (All India 2011) Answer: After the independence India was suffering from poverty, literacy rate was very low. Therefore, Government of India passed a resolution and set-up a Planning Commission in March 1950. The Planning Commission planned a structure of development in terms of five Years Plans and mixed economic policy. First Five Year Plan The First Five Year Plan emphasised on agricultural sector, dams, irrigation facilities. It also increased the literacy rate. It focused on saving, therefore the per capita income was increased. Second Five Year Plan The Second Five Year Plan focused on industrial development and infrastructural development. So that agricultural sector also grew to meet the demand of agricultural products in industries. Mixed Economic Policy India adopted the mixed economic policy. Therefore, the two sectors private and public could do better in development of India. The state controlled the heavy industries and provided industrial infrastructure, regulated trade and some important intervention in agriculture. This all buildup a new India. Question 5. What was Green Revolution? Mention its any two positive and any two negative consequences. (Delhi 2012,2008; All India 2011,2008) Answer: It was a governmental approach towards reforms in agricultural sectors to attain rapid growth in production of agriculture. Because Indian agriculture, which had been stagnant and asleep for centuries needed a revolution and this government initiative is known as green revolution. Its aim was to – ensure self-sufficiency in foodgrain production. It took place in Third Five Year Plan. It had some essentials

Positive Consequences For merits of Green Revolution the two merits of Green Revolution were :

Thus, first socially, then politically and economically the status of farmers in these states was risen. Demerit/Negative Outcomes

Therefore the middleman created a condition due to which farmers were impoverished. The political strength of the middleman also increased. Negative Consequences For merits of Green Revolution the two merits of Green Revolution were :

Thus, first socially, then politically and economically the status of farmers in these states was risen. Demerit/Negative Outcomes

Therefore the middleman created a condition due to which farmers were impoverished. The political strength of the middleman also increased.

Picture Based Question Question 1. Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the questions that follow: (i) Identify and name the person who is holding the balancing beam between the public sector and the private sector. (ii) Why has a big tilt towards the public sector been shown in the cartoon? (iii) How did the over-emphasis on public sector adversely affect the Indian economy? (All India 2017) Answer: (i) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, the then Prime Minister of India. (ii) A big tilt towards the public sector been shown in the cartoon because the government was in favour of mixed economy which added elements from both public and state models of economy. But the government provided much power to public sector. This sector has powerful vested interests that created enough hurdles for private capital, especially by way of installing systems of licenses, permits for investment and also restricted import of goods. (iii) The public sector exercised much power than private sector like controlled key heavy industries, provided industrial infrastructure, regulated trade and made crucial interventions in agriculture. When much hurdles created by public sector for private capital and also restrict import of goods by state’s policy, there was not enough space and stimulus left for private sector to grow. The state controlled more things than were necessary and this over-emphasis on public sector ultimately led inefficiency and corruption in the Indian economy.

Question 1. What led policy-makers to reduce the importance of state in India’s economy from 1980’s onwards? (Delhi 2008; All India 2008) Answer: The following facts are responsible which led policy-makers reduce the importance of state in India’s economy from 1980 onwards:

Question 2. Explain the main arguments in the debate that ensued between industrialisation and agricultural development at the time of Second Five Year Plan. (All India 2012) OR Examine the controversy regarding Agriculture vs Industry in India after the 2nd Five Year Plan. (Delhi (C) 2008) Answer: The dispute between the agriculture and industry are as follows:

Thus, these above controversies put government into cage and demanded an equal treatment. Hence, the Indian planners found balancing industry and agriculture really difficult.