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Important Questions Class 12 Political Science Chapter 6 International Organisations

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Question 1. Who is present Secretary-General of the United Nations? (Delhi 2014) OR Nalle the present General-Secretary of the Union Nations who belongs to Asia. (All India 2013) Answer: The present Secretary-General of the United Nations is former Prime Minister of Portugal, Antonio Guterres. He succeeded Ban-ki-Moon (2007-2016). Question 2. What is the main objective of the United Nation? (Delhi 2014) OR State anyone important objective of the United Nation, (All India 2014) OR Mention any one objective of the United Nations. (Delhi 2013) Answer: The main objective of the United Nation is prevention of conflicts and facilitating cooperation Allong states. Question 3. How many permanent members and non-permanent members does the UN Security Council have? (Delhi 2013) Answer: The UN Security Council have five permanent members and ten non-permanent members. Question 4. Mention any one function of the World Bank. (Delhi 2013) Answer: World Bank provides loans and grants to the member states, especially to the developing countries. Question 5. Mention the main function of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). (All India 2013) Answer: The World Trade Organisation (WTO) is an international organisation which sets the rules for global trade. Question 6. What is the highest functionary of the UN called? (Delhi 2012) Answer: Secretary General is the highest functionary of the United Nations. Question 7. How many member states did the United Nations have until 2006? (Delhi 2012; All India 2010) Answer: United Nations had 192 members states All 2006. Question 8. How many founder states signed the United Nations Charter in 1945? (Delhi 2012) Answer: There were 51 countries who signed the United Nations Charter in 1945. Question 9. State the main objective of the ‘Human Rights Watch.’ (Delhi 2011) Answer: Human Rights Watch is an international NGO. Its main objective is to draws the global media’s attention to human rights abuses and advocacy for human rights. Question 10. Mention the full form of IMF. How many member states does it have? (Delhi 2011, 2010) OR Write the full form of IMF. Whi 2010 Answer: The full form of IMF is International Monetary Fund. It has 188 member countries. Question 11. What is the main function of Allnesty International? (All India 2011) Answer: Amnesty International is an international NGO which campaigns for the protection of human rights all over the world. Question 12. What is meant by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)? (Delhi 2010) Answer: International Atomic Energy Agency is an international organisation that seek to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to prevent its use for military purposes. Question 13. When was the World Trade Organisation (WTO) established? NAlle any country which used WTO to advance its own interest. (Delhi 2010) Answer: The World Trade Organisation (WTO) was established in 1995 as a successor to GATT. US, EU and Japan have used WTO to frAlle rules of trade to advance their own interests. Question 14. How many judges are there in the International Court of justice and what is their tenure? (All India 2010) Answer: There are 15 judges in the International Court of justice and their tenure is nine years. Question 15. What is World Health Organisation? (All India 2010) Answer: World Health Organisation (WHO) is a specialised agency of the United Nations. The objective of WHO is to promote the highest possible level of health in all people. Question 16. What is ‘Amnesty International’ responsible for? (Delhi 2009) Answer: Amnesty International is an NGO which is responsible for the protection of human rights accross the world and publishes report to prevent and end grave abuse of human rights. Question 17. What is meant by this statement? “The United Nations was not created to take humanity to the heaven, but to save it from the hell. Dag Hammarskjold (All India 2009) Answer: The statement means that the United Nations was not formed to make world a good and peaceful place to live in rather to save the world from another World War. Question 18. Nalle the international agency relating to environmental progrAllme. (Delhi 2008) Answer: The international agency relating to environmental progrAllme is United Nations Environment programme (UNEP). Question 19. What is the composition of the UN Security Council? (All India (C) 2008) Answer: The UN Security Council consists of five permanent members and ten non-permanent members.

Question 1. What is Amnesty International? State its main functions? (Delhi 2016) Answer: Amnesty International is an NGO that campaigns for the protection of human rights all over the world. Main functions of Amnesty International are :

Question 2. Mention any two agencies of the United Nations. (Delhi 2014) Answer: Two agencies of the United Nations are :

Question 3. List any four principal organs of the United Nations. (Delhi 2014) OR Nalle any four main organs of the United Nations. (All India 2013) Answer: Four main organs of UN are :

Question 4. Mention any two functions of the World Bank. (All India 2014) Answer: Two functions of World Bank are :

Question 5. Why are international organisations like the UN required? (Delhi 2013) OR Why do we need organisations like the UN? (Delhi 2011, 2009) OR Mention any two advantages of having international organisation in the world. (All India 2010) Answer: We need international organisations like UN:

Question 6. Nalle one country each from the continents of America, Africa, Asia and Europe, wherein the UN ‘peace keeping operations’ were administered. (All India 2012) Answer: America Haiti in 2004 Africa Liberia in 2003 Asia India and Pakistan in 1949 Europe Georgia in 1993 and Cyprus in 1964 Question 7. How many member countries have got veto power in the UN Security Council and why? (All indin 2011) Answer: All five permanent members of the UN have got veto power. The UN Charter gave the permanent members a privileged position to bring about stability in the world after the Second World War. Question 8. Suggest any two major changes to improve the functioning of the Security Council. (All India 2011) Answer: TWO major changes to improve the functioning of the Security Council are :

Question 9. What is the main objective of Amnesty International? (All India 2010) Answer: Main objectives of Amnesty International are :

Question 10. List any two functions of the General Assembly of the UN. (Delhi 2010) Answer: Two functions of the General Assembly of the UN are :

Question 11. State any two objectives of the Human Rights Watch. (Delhi 2010) Answer: Human Rights Watch is an international NGO. Two objectives of its are :

Question 12. Highlight any two objectives of Amnesty International. (Delhi 2010) Answer: Amnesty International is an NGO for the protection of human rights all over the world. Its objectives are :

Question 13. Write the full form of any four of the following UN bodies. (All India 2010) (i) UNESCO (ii) OPCW (iii) UNRISD (iv) WMO (v) UNHCR Answer: (i) UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation. (ii) OPCW Organisation for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. (iii) UNRISD United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. (iv) WMO World Meteorological Organisation. (v) UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees. Question 14. What is meant by security council? Mention its composition. (All India 2010) Answer: Security council is one of the principle organs of UNO. It consists of five permanent members and ten non-permanent members. The permanent members have the ‘Right to Veto’ and the other members are elected for a term of two years. Question 15. What is UNEP? Mention its any two main functions. (All India 2009) Answer: United Nations Environment programme (UNEP) is an international agency for the awareness of environmental consequences of economic growth. Two main functions of UNEP are:

Question 16. Why do only the five permanent members of the security council have right to veto? (All India 2009) Answer: Permanent members are given the privilege of bringing stability in the world after the Second World War. Privileges enjoyed by them are :

These are not enjoyed by the non-permanent members. Question 17. Highlight any two jurisdictions of the United Nations. (Delhi (C) 2008) Answer: The two jurisdictions of United Nations are :

Question 18. Mention any two basic concerns about the reforms related to the processes and restructing of the UNO. (Delhi 2008) Answer: The two basic concerns about the reforms related to the processes and restructing of the UNO are :

Question 19. Give any two reasons why veto power of permanent members of Security Council cannot be abolished. All India 2008 Answer: Veto power of permanent members of Security Council cannot be abolished because :

Question 20. Give any two arguments in support of India’s permanent membership to the UN Security Council. (All India 2008) Answer: Arguments in favour of India to be the member of UN Security Council are :

Question 21. Give any two arguments of some countries, which oppose the inclusion of India in UNSC as a permanent member. (All India 2008) Answer: Arguments of countries which oppose India’s inclusion as permanent member in UNSC are :

Question 22. Mention any two reforms in the UN after the Cold War. (Delhi to 2008) Answer: UN was restructured and reformed after the Cold War on following two basis:

Question 23. How is the International Court of Justice composed? Where is it based? (All India (C) 2008) Answer: The International Court of Justice consists of fifteen judges who are elected for nine years by absolute majority in both the General Assembly and the Security Council. It is based in Hague, Netherlands.

Question 1. What is the full form of WTO? When was it set up? How does it function? (All India 2017; Delhi 2016) Answer: The full form of WTO is World Trade. Organisation which sets the rules for global trade. It is an international organisation. WTO replaced GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) in 1995. It includes 157 members. Major economic powers such as EU, US and Japan have managed to use the WTO to work in favour of them. And the developing countries complain about its non-transparent procedures and it being influenced by big powers. Question 2. Why do some countries question the issue of India’s inclusion as a permanent member of the UN Security Council? Explain. (Delhi 2016) Answer: India desires to be a permanent member of the UN Security Council but many countries question the issue of India’s inclusion as a permanent member. It is not just Pakistan which is opposing India’s permanent membership, other countries are also questioning it on the basis of India’s nuclear weapons capability. The view of some members is that the conflict between India and Pakistan will make Indian membership ineffective. Some other argue that with India’s inclusion, emerging powers such as: Brazil, Germany, Japan, South Africa will also demand for their inclusion on the basis of their unrepresentative structure. And all this makes India’s inclusion a difficult task. Question 3. What is Human Rights Watch? Describe its main contribution to the field of Human Rights. (All India 2016) Answer: The Human Rights Watch is an international NGO involved in research and advocacy on human rights. Main contribution in the field of human right is stated in the points below:

Question 4. Critically evaluate the difficulties involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the UN. (HOTS; Delhi 2015) Answer: Many difficulties are involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the UN. Some of them are discussed below : 1. Many viewed that Security Council no longer represented contemporary political realities. Some criteria were proposed for new permanent members and non-permanent members, such as a major economic power, military power, a nation that respect democracy and human rights, etc. Each of these criteria have some validity, but due to lack of clarity on certain points, the criteria were considered to be problematic. 2. Change in the nature of membership was another proposed reform. Some insisted that ‘veto’ power of the permanent members of the Security Council should be abolished. But permanent members do not agree to such a reform. It is another major difficulty in reform. 3. Another difficulty was that how representation should be given to Asia, Africa, Latin America and Caribbean. But selection of the basis of representation i.e. geography, economic development, culture or civilisation etc creates a problem. Question 5. As decided by the member states in 2005 highlight any four steps to make the United Nations more relevant in the changing context. (Delhi 2014) OR List any four steps suggested by the member states of the UN in 2005 in order to make the United Nations more relevant? (Delhi 2012) OR Suggest any four reforms required to make the United Nations more effective (Delhi 2011) Answer: The following steps were proposed to make the UN more relevant in the changing scenario :

Question 6. State any four criteria that have been proposed in the recent years for new permanent and non-permanent members of the UN Security Council. (All India 2013) OR Describe any four proposed criteria for the new permanent and non-permanent members of the security council in order to improve its functioning. (All India 2010) Answer: To be a new member following criteria should be fulfilled:

Question 7. What steps should be taken to strengthen the UNO? (All Indin 2009; Delhi 2009) Answer: In order to strengthen the UNO following steps can be taken:

Question 8. Explain any four reasons as to why India should be given a permanent membership in the UN Security Council. (Delhi to 2008) Answer: The four reasons suggesting that India should be given a permanent membership in the UN Security Council are :

Question 9. Match the following organs/agencies of the UN and their functions: (All India (C) 2008)

Question 10. How are international organisation helpful to the nations? (Delhi to 2008) Answer: International organisation can be helpful to nations following ways :

Question 1. Trace the evolution of the United Nations since its establishment in 1945. How does it function with the help of its structures and agencies? (All India 2017, 2016) Answer: The United Nations was established in 1945 after the end of Second World War as a successor to the League of Nations. The United Nations Charter was signed by 51 states for setting up of UN. Objectives of UN. The basic aim was to achieve what League of Nations was not able to achieve during the two World Wars. The other objectives of UN are as follows:

UN Structures and Agencies UN includes many different structures for dealing with different issues. The issue relating to war and peace, and differences between member states are dealt by discussion in General Assembly as well as in the security council education. The other issues such as social and economic are dealt by a number of agencies which include :

Question 2. Describe the two basic reforms of the UN on which almost everyone agrees that they are necessary after the cold war. (Delhi 2016) Answer: As reform and improvement are fundamental to any organisation, there have been demands for changes in the UN from different countries. The nature of reforms that are desired are of two types:

The structural reform’s major area was the functioning of the security council. This covers the increment of permanent and non-permanent members of UN Security Council so as to show in better way the realities of present world politics. Whereas the proposed increment should be from Asia, Africa and South America. The another area of reform for UN was its budgetary procedures and its administration. When the areas of jurisdiction are taken, some states and experts wish that the UN should have more role in peace and security missions whereas others wish to restrict UN’s role in development and humanitarian work like health, education environment, population control, human rights, gender and social justice. Question 3. Which three complaints related to the UN Security Council were reflected in the resolution passed by the UN General Assembly in 1992? Describe any three criteria that have been proposed for new permanent members of the security council. (All India 2018) OR Describe any six criteria for the new membership of Security Council as suggested after 1997. (Delhi 2015) Answer: In 1992, with a view to bring reforms in the UN Security Council, a resolution was adopted by the UN General Assembly. The resolution was about following three main complaints:

In view of reorganisation, UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan initiated an inquiry into the ways of reformation of UN on 1st January, 1997. After the years of inquiry, following criteria have been suggested for the permanent and non-permanent members of Security Council. For criteria, To be a new member following criteria should be fulfilled:

Question 4. Describe the composition of the UN Security Council. What is the major difference in the privileges given to its permanent and non-permanent members? (All India 2016) Answer: Composition of the UN Security Council. The Security Council is an important organ of the United Nations Organisation (UNO). It consists of five permanent members (China, United States of America, United Kingdom, Russia and France) and ten non-permanent members who are elected for a period of two years). The selection of the permanent members were on the basis of their being powerful immediately after the Second World War and they being the victors in the war. There is the major difference in the privileges given to the permanent and non-permanent members. Privileges to Its Permanent and Non-Permanent Members The UN Charter gave the permanent members a privileged position to bring about stability in the world. After the Second World War the main privileges enjoyed by the permanent members are :

The non-permanent members are elected only for two years at a time and cannot be re-elected immediately after completing two years. They are elected in a manner so that they represent all continents of the world. The non-permanent members do not have the veto power. When decisions are taken by security council, voting is done. All members have one vote. But the permanent members can vote in a negative manner so that even if all other permanent and non-permanent members vote for a particular decision, any permanent member’s negative vote can stall the decision. This negative vote is the veto. Question 5. Assess any six steps suggested since 2005 to make the United Nations more relevant in the changing context. (Delhi 2010) Answer: The following steps were proposed to make the UN more relevant in the changing scenario :

Question 6. How far did the UN perform its role successfully in maintaining peace in the world? Explain. (HOTS; All India 2010) Answer: The UN performs its role successfully in maintaining peace in the world. This can be justified from the points below :

Map-Based Question Question 1. Study the given map of the world and answer the following question in your answer book. (Delhi 2009) (i) Identify and Nalle the countries marked A, B, C and D respectively. (ii) Write the Alles of the following UN Secretary Generals with the alleles of the countries they belonged to: (a) Dag Hammarskjold (b) Kurt Waldheim (c) Boutros Boutros-Ghali (d) Kofi A. Arman Answer: (i) A – Sweden B – Ghana C – Austria D – Egypt (ii) (a) Dag Hammarskjold – Sweden (b) Kurt Waldheim – Austria (c) Boutros Boutros-Ghali – Egypt (d) Kofi A. Annan – Ghana

(i) Look after, administration and coordination of UN affairs

(ii) Provides shelter and medical help during emergencies

(iii) Performs economic and social welfare functions of the member countries

(iv) Safe and peaceful use of nuclear technology

(iii) Performs economic and social welfare functions of the member countries

(iv) Safe and peaceful use of nuclear technology

(ii) Provides shelter and medical help during emergencies

(i) Look after, administration and coordination of UN affairs