Important Questions Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Contemporary South Asia
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Question 1. What is the full form of ‘SAARC’? (All India 2014) Answer: The full form of SAARC is the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. Question 2. Who controls the North-Eastern parts of Sri Lanka? (All India 2014) Answer: The LTTE controlled the North-Eastern parts of Sri Lanka. After its defeat the area is now under the control of the Government of Sri Lanka. Question 3. Whose mediation resolved the ‘Indus River Waters Dispute’ between India and Pakistan? (All Indio 2012) Answer: The World Bank resolved the ‘Indus River Water Dispute’ between India and Pakistan. Question 4. Mention any two objectives of SAARC. (Delhi 2011) Answer: The two objectives of SAARC are :
Question 5. Mention any four names of the countries belonging to the SAARC. (All India 2013) OR Name the member countries of SAARC? (Delhi 2009, All Indin 2009) OR Mention any two member nations of SAARC. (All India 2009) Answer: Member countries of SAARC are :
Question 6. What does SAFTA stand for? (Delhi All 2008) Answer: SAFTA stands for South Asian Free Trade Agreement. Question 7. Mention the names of any four countries of South Asia. (All India 2008) Answer: The four countries of South Asia are Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Pakistan.
Question 1. Analyse the two political developments of 1940s that led to the decision for the creation of Pakistan. (All India 2017) Answer: Two political developments of 1940s that led to the decision for the creation of Pakistan are following
Question 2. Suggest any two measures to have good relations with Pakistan, (All India 2015) Answer: Two measures to have good relations with Pakistan are:
Question 3. State any two reasons for the instability of democracy in Pakistan. (Delhi 2014) Answer: The two factors for Pakistan’s failure of stable democracy are:
Question 4. Before 1971, which two reasons were a source of resentment among the people of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) against West Pakistan? (Delhi 2013) Answer: The two reasons which were source of v resentment (hate) among the people of Pakistan against West Pakistan were :
Question 5. What were the two main consequences of Indo-Pakistan conflict of 1971? (All India 2013) Answer: The consequences of Indo-Pakistan conflict of 1971 are given below :
Question 6. Explain any two common features relevant to the countries of South Asia. (All India [C] 2008) Answer: The common features relevant to the countries of South Asia are :
Question 1. ‘Democracy is becoming the first choice of the people of South Asia’. Justify the statement. (HOTS; All India 2015) OR ‘Despite the mixed record of democratic experience, the people of all the countries of South Asia share the aspirations of democracy.’ Explain. (HOTS; Delhi 2012) Answer: Democracy is becoming the first choice of the people of South Asia. According to a survey conducted, the results show that all the five countries in the South Asia region supports democracy. People belonging to different religions, ordinary citizens, rich as well as poor, all view the idea of democracy positively and support the institutions of representative ‘ democracy. For instance :
Thus, it can be concluded that, despite of mixed record of democratic experience, the people of all countries of South Asia share the aspirations of democracy. Question 2. Explain any two points of conflict between India and Bangladesh. (Delhi 2014) OR Highlight any four issues of tension between India and Bangladesh. (Delhi 2012) OR Highlight any two issues of cooperation as well as confrontation each between India and Bangladesh, (All India 2010) Answer: The issues of tension (negative aspects) between India and Bangladesh are :
The issues of cooperation (positive aspects) between both the countries are :
Question 3. Explain any two reasons for the popular struggle in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) against West Pakistan during 1971. Delhi 2014 Answer: The two reasons for the popular struggle in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) against West Pakistan during 1971 are following :
Question 4. Explain any four causes of ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka, (All India 2014) Answer: The four causes of ethnic conflict were :
Question 5. How is democratisation going on in Nepal since 1990? (All India 2013) Answer: Nepal use to be a Hindu kingdom in the earlier period followed by constitutional monarchy in the modern period for many years. The pro-democracy movements forced the king to allow new democratic Constitution in 1990. But it had a short and troubled career. There was a huge influence of Maoists in many parts of Nepal who believed in armed insurrection against the monarch and the ruling elite. Hence, a triangular conflict among the Monarchist forces, the democrats and the Maoists took place for sometime. The parliament was abolished and the government was dismissed by the king in 2002. Again in 2006, the king was forced to restore the House of Representatives after a massive country wide pro-democracy protests. The constituent assembly was formed to write the Constitution for Nepal. The Constitution has come into effect with some amendment process going on. Question 6. What does SAARC stand for? Highlight its any three main objectives. (All India 2013) Answer: SAARC stands for the South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation. It was founded in 1985. It is a major regional initiative by the South Asian states to evolve cooperation through multilateral meAnswer: Objectives of SAARC are as follows :
Question 7. Explain any two factors responsible for Pakistan’s failure in building a stable democracy. (All Indio 2012) Answer: The factors that are responsible for Pakistan’s failure in building stable democracy are :
Question 8. Explain India’s changing relationship with Pakistan. (Delhi 2011) Answer: India and Pakistan just after independence got involved in conflict over certain issues. These included Kashmir, control over Siachen glacier, sharing water of rivers etc. These issues led to wars between them in 1947-1948, 1965 and 1971. The nuclear test by both the countries in 1990’s further deteriorated the relations between them. Steps were taken to improve the relations between India and Pakistan. Some of them include :
Question 9. Name the countries included in South Asia. How can peace and cooperation be enhanced in this region? (Delhi Board 2010) OR What is meant by SAARC? How can peace and cooperation be enhanced through it? Delhi 2010 Answer: The countries included in South Asia are Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. Inspite of many conflicts, the significance of cooperation and friendly relations is very well understood by the nations of South Asia. To evolve the cooperation by multilateral means, a regional cooperation is being formed under the name of SAARC i.e. the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. It was established in 1985. It is a major regional initiative to evolve cooperation through multilateral meAnswer: SAARC members signed the South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) in 2004 which promised the formation of a free trade zone for the whole of South Asia. It aims at lowering trade tarrifs by 20 percent by 2007.
Question 1. “Nepal and India enjoy a very special relationship that has very few parallels in the world”. Justify the statement with any three suitable arguments. (HOTS; All India 2017) Answer: Nepal and India share a very special relationship that can be illustrated with three suitable examples as follows:
Question 2. Assess the positive and negative aspects of India’s relations with Bangladesh. (Delhi 2015) Answer: The issues of tension (negative aspects) between India and Bangladesh are :
The issues of cooperation (positive aspects) between both countries are :
Question3. Like India, why could democracy not take roots in Pakistan despite the fact that both the countries share a common past? (All India 2011) OR Explain the factors responsible for Pakistan’s failure in building a stable democracy. Describe any two pro-democracy factors present in Pakistan which can pave the way for establishing a lasting democratic set up over there. (All indin 2010) Answer: Pakistan does not have a good experience with democracy. Several factors contributed to the failure in building a stable democracy in Pakistan. They are as follows :
Even though democracy has not been fully successful in Pakistan, there has been a strong pro-democracy sentiment in the country. Pakistan has a courageous and relatively free press and a strong human rights movement. Question 4. What are the major differences between the SEC and the European Union as alternative centres of power? (HOTS; All India 2011) Answer: The differences between the SAARC and the European Union are as follows
Question 5. Analyse the common problems of South Asian countries. (All India 2011) Answer: South Asia includes countries like India, Pakistan, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Maldives and Sri Lanka. The various natural areas such as the Himalayas, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean are part of this region. The common problems among them are :
Map-Based Question Question 1. In the given outline map of South Asia, five countries have been marked as (A), (B), (C), (D) and (E). Identify them on the basis of the information given below and write their correct names in your answer book with their respective serial number of the information used and the alphabet concerned as per the following format. (All India 2016) Information used (i) The country has experienced civilian as well as a military rule both. (ii) Democracy was restored in this country in 2006. (iii) This country is still a monarchy. (iv) The Parliament of this country voted unanimously to introduce a multiparty system in June 2005. (v) This country is a part of India’s ‘Look East Policy via Myanmar’. Answer:
Question 1. Study the following passage carefully and answer the questions those are following (All India 2017) The lack of genuine international support for democratic rule in Pakistan has further encouraged the military to continue its dominance. The United States and other Western countries have encouraged the military’s authoritarian rule in the past, for their own reasons. Given their fear of the threat of what they call ‘global Islamic terrorism’ and the apprehension that Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal might fall into the hands of these terrorist groups, the military regime in Pakistan has been seen as the protector of Western interests in West Asia and South Asia. (i) What is meant by ‘Global Islamic Terrorism’? (ii) Why did Pakistan lack genuine international support for a democratic rule? (iii) Why was the military regime in Pakistan considered as the protector of Western interests in West Asia and South Asia? Answer: (i) Global Islamic Terrorism refers to political violence committed by Islamic fundamentalist to terrorise civilians world widely deliberately to get accepted their demands. (ii) Pakistan lacks genuine international support for the democratic rule because the USA and other Western countries have fear of the threat of global Islamic terrorism and the nuclear weapon may fall into the hands of terrorist groups under civilian rule. (iii) The military regime in Pakistan is regarded as the protector of Western interests in West Asia and South Asia because they strictly deal with Islamic fundamentalist and terrorist groups and act as a strategic partner in West Asia and South Asia. Question 2. No region exists in a vacuum. It is influenced by outside powers and events no matter how much it may try to insulate itself from non-regional powers. China and the United States remain key players in South Asian politics. Sino-Indian relations have improved significantly in the last ten years, but China’s strategic partnership with Pakistan remains a major irritant. The demands of development and globalisation have brought the two Asian giants closer and their economic ties have multiplied rapidly since 1991. Delhi 2012 Study the paragraph given above carefully and answer the following questions (i) Which two countries have been referred to as ‘Outside power’? (ii) Which are the two Asian giants and why have they been called so? (iii) China’s strategic partnership with Pakistan is a major irritant for which country and why? Answer: (i) The two countries referred to outside powers are China and the USA. (ii) India and China are the two Asian giants. They have been called so because they have emerged as strong economic and military power rapidly. (iii) The strategic partnership is a major irritant for India because it is causing problems in the normalisation of diplomatic relations between the two countries.
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It was established with a view to evolve cooperation through multilateral means.
It was established by NATO to devise a plan in order to enable its 16 member nations in Europe to revive their economy which shattered in Second World War. It was observed as support to capitalism against communism socialism.
There is no common institution to guide SAARC.
European Union is guided by common institutions such as European Commission, European Parliament, European Court of Justice, etc.
It shows reluctant attitude to sacrifice nation sovereignty.
It shows attitude of sacrificing national sovereignty for greater and united Europe.
SAARC nations prefer technology adoption rather than innovation. USA and China have undue interference in internal affairs of SAARC as they provide technology to these nations.
European Union nations are driving for invention and innovation. This resists interference of technological advanced nations such as USA and China.
The nature of economy in SAARC is agriculture and manufacturing sector.
The nature of economy in European Union is knowledge based service sector.
A few member countries (e.g. Pakistan), due to their self-centred approach understand SAARC’s efforts only favourable to India as it may invade their markets and influence their societies.
Its member countries have their own foreign relations and defence policies that are often at odds with each other e.g., Britain’s Prime Minister was America’s partner in Iraq invasion whereas Germany and France opposed American policy.
The country has experienced civilian as well as military rule both
Democracy was restored in the country in 2006.
The parliament of this country voted unanimously to introduce multiparty system in June 2005.
This country is a part of India’s Look East Policy via Myanmar.