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Important Questions Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 Us Hegemony World Politics

Free PDF download of Important Questions for CBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 US Hegemony in World Politics prepared by expert Political Science teachers from latest edition of CBSE(NCERT) books, On StudySolver.Org to score more marks in CBSE board examination. You can also Download  Political Science Revision Notes Class 12  to help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations. Jump to 4 Marks Questions Jump to 6 Marks Questions jump to 2 Marks Questions jump to Passage-Based Questions

Question 1. What was the significance of ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom? (All India 2017) Answer: The significance of ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’ was that it led to falling of dictatorship under the Saddam Hussein and establishment of democratic government in Iraq. Question 2. What is meant by hegemony? (Delhi 2015) OR What does the word ‘hegemony’ imply? (Delhi 2012) Answer: The word ‘hegemony’ implies the leadership or predominance of one state over others by virtue of it’s military-economic, political power and cultural superiority. Question 3. What was ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’? (Delhi 2015) Answer: As a part of it’s Global War or Terror’, the US launched ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’ against all those suspected to be behind 9/11 attack, mainly Al-Qaeda and the Taliban regime in Afganistan. Question 4. What was the main objective of ‘Operation Desert Storm’? (Delhi 2015) OR Why was ‘Operation Desert Storm’ fought again Iraq? (All India 2014) Answer: The Gulf War codenamed ‘Operation Desert Storm’ was a war waged by coalition forces from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq’s invasion and annexation of Kuwait. Question 5. How did the US respond to the 9/11 attacks? (All India 2015) Answer: The US launched ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’ in response to the 9/11 attacks. It was against all those who are suspected to be behind this attack. Question 6. Explain hegemony as soft power. (All India 2015) Answer: Hegemony as soft power is all about the capacity to ‘produce consent’. Hegemony in this context means class supremacy in social, political and, particularly ideological spheres. Question 7. Highlight any one main feature of the US economy. (All India 2015) Answer: One main feature of the US economy is that the US is present in all parts of the world and in all sectors of the world economy. The US share of the world economy remains an enormous 28 per cent. Question 8. Which incident was related to 9/11? (Delhi 2014) Answer: The incident related to 9/11 was the attack on the World Trade Centre of America on 11th September 2001. Question 9. What was ‘Bandwagon strategy’? (All India 2014) OR Define the ‘Bandwagon strategy’. (All India 2013) Answer: Bandwagon strategy is the strategy which advocates extracting benefits by operating within the hegemonic system. It is done in order to absorb profits of bilateral trade, investment technology transfer so as to become more powerful than that country. Question 10. What is meant by ‘9/11’ in the context of the USA? (Delhi 2013) OR How is 9/11 important in the context of the USA? (Delhi 2013; All India 2009) Answer: On 11th September 2001, 19 hijackers from a number of Arab countries took control of four American commercial aircraft and crashed them into the North and South Tower of World Trade Centre in New York, Pentagon building in Arlington, Virginia and Pennsylvania. Question 11. What is the main reason for the beginning of the US hegemony in 1991? (All India 2013) OR When did the year of US hegemony start? (All India 2010; Delhi 2010) Answer: The main reason for the beginning of the US hegemony in 1991 was the disappearance of the Soviet power from the international order. So, in the 1990s the year of US hegemony started. Question 12. Approximately how many people lost their lives as a result of the 9/11 attack? (All Indio 2010) Answer: In a 9/11 attack, almost 3000 people lost their lives. Question 13. What was ‘New International Order’? (Delhi 2010) OR What is the ‘New World Order’? (All India (C) 2008) Answer: The ‘New International Order’ or the ‘New World Order’ appeared to begin after the sudden collapse of Soviet Union. Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. UN tried to convince Iraq to quit its aggression, then the UN-mandated the liberation of Kuwait by force. Then, the US President George HW Bush hailed the emergence of ‘New World Order. Question 14. What is meant by US hegemony in world politics? (Delhi 2009) Answer: US Hegemony means attempt of the US to establish or show her paramountcy in the political, structural, economy, military and cultural fields over all other countries in the world. Question 15. Why did the United States of America launch a war against Iraq? (All Indio 2009) Answer: The United States of America launched a war against Iraq to prevent Iraq from developing Weapons of Mass Destruction. Question 16. How does the open nature of society act as a constraint on the US military action overseas? Delhi 2008 Answer: Americans are well educated and their mind is immune to religious perception or any other perspective. Open society criticises the basis of some facts. This way the open nature of society acts as a constraint on the US military action overseas.

Question 1. Write the four forms of power which reflect the US hegemony. (All India 2012) Answer: The four forms of power which reflect the US hegemony are :

Question 2. How can hegemony be overcome? (Delhi 2011) Answer: Hegemony can be overcome through :

Question 3. Highlight any two facts showing cordiality in the relationship between India and the 3 United States. (Delhi 2010) Answer: The two facts showing cordiality in the relationship between IT dia and the United States are :

Question 4. What was a 9/11 event? What was the US response to it? (All India 2008) Answer: On 11th September 2001, 19 hijackers from a number of Arab countries took control of four American commercial aircraft and crashed them into the North and South Tower of World Trade Centre in New York, Pentagon building in Arlington, Virginia and Pennsylvania. The US launched ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’ in response to the 9/11 attacks. It was against all those who are suspected to be behind this attack. Question 5. Mention any four tasks that military forces usually try to accomplish in an invasion. In which task was the serious weakness of US reflected in the war over Iraq? (All India 2008) Answer: Generally, military forces perform the following four tasks :

A weakness of US military capability was seen in policing of an occupied territory. The USA has not been able to force the Iraqi people into submitting to occupation forces of the US-led coalition. Question 6. How can NATO be a constraint in the exercise of the US hegemony? (Delhi 2008) Answer: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) is a very significant constraint on the US hegemony. It is the only organisation in the international system that could possibly moderate the exercise of US military power. NATO can act as a restraint on the USA because the US has a huge interest in keeping the alliance of democracies that follow market economies alive. In this respect, NATO suits US interest best way and NATO has the potential to moderate US hegemony ineffective way.

Question 1. Explain any two strategies to overcome hegemony. (Delhi 2014, 2011) Answer: Hegemony can be overcome through different strategies. Two important strategies are :

Question 2. Explain the hegemony of the United States of America as a structural power. (All India 2014; Delhi 2008) Answer: The hegemony of the United States of America as a structural power emerges from a particular understanding of the world economy. It can be summed up as follows:

Question 3. What was ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’? (All India 2013,2012) OR Who was the target of ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’ launched by the US as part of the war on terrorism? Answer: The US launched ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’ as a part of ‘Global War on Terror’, against all those suspected behind the 9/11 attack mainly Al-Qaeda and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. Although the Taliban regime in Afghanistan was easily overthrown, terrorist attacks by Al-Qaeda and the Taliban still continue and more so against Western targets. The target of operation made by the US forces was all over the world. They arrest people without the knowledge of the government of the persons being arrested. These persons were detained in secret prisons. Some of them were brought to Guantanamo Bay, a US Naval base in Cuba, where they have neither protection of international law, nor their own country law on that the US. Even UN representatives are not allowed to interact with these prisoners. Question 4. Describe any two constraints on American hegemony. (Delhi 2013; All Indio 2012,2010) OR What is meant by US hegemony? Describe any two constraints on the US hegemony, (All India 2010) Answer: For the meaning of US hegemony, The US launched ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’ as a part of ‘Global War on Terror’, against all those suspected behind the 9/11 attack mainly Al-Qaeda and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. Although the Taliban regime in Afghanistan was easily overthrown, terrorist attacks by Al-Qaeda and the Taliban still continue and more so against Western targets. The target of operation made by the US forces was all over the world. They arrest people without the knowledge of the government of the persons being arrested. These persons were detained in secret prisons. Some of them were brought to Guantanamo Bay, a US Naval base in Cuba, where they have neither protection of international law, nor their own country law on that the US. Even UN representatives are not allowed to interact with these prisoners. The two constraints on American hegemony are :

Question 5. Explain the hegemony of the United States as hard power. (All India 2013: Delhi 2008) Answer: As a hard power, the US power lies in the superiority of its military power. The notion of hegemony as military domination is relevant to the current position of the US in world politics. American military power is both absolute and relative. Thus, the military dominance of the US is not first based on higher military spending, but on a qualitative gap and a technological charm. Attack on Vietnam is an example of the US hard power hegemony. Question 6. How far is it correct to say that after 1990 Indian Foreign Policy has shifted to pro-US strategy? Explain. (Delhi 2012) Answer: With the disintegration of USSR during 1991, India gradually started shifting its foreign policy towards, US because economic interest became more important than military interest. India liberalised its economy and became the part of US-led global economy in 1991. India’s impressive economic growth and decision to liberalise the economy have resulted in making the country an attractive economic partner for many countries and the US also. There emerged two factors in relations to Indo-US context. These were :

In fact, these two factors are interrelated considering the following facts:

Today, we enjoy a strong relationship with the US. Recently ‘Civil Nuclear Accord’ was signed with the US. Our defence, scientific, educational ties and trade relation are quite strong with the USA. Thus, it is correct to say that after 1990 Indian foreign Policy has shifted to pro-US strategy. Question 7. Why was the US attacked by the terrorists on 11th September 2001? How did the US react to it? Delhi 2011 Answer: The USA was attacked by the terrorists on 11th September 2001 to attract the attention of Public and Governments all over the world. Reaction of US The US launched ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’ in response to the 9/11 attack. It was against all suspects namely, Al-Qaeda and the Taliban regime of Afghanistan. The US forces made arrests all over the world without the knowledge of the government of the persons being arrested. These persons were detained in secret prisons. Some of them were brought to Guantanamo Bay, a US Naval base in Cuba. There neither protection of international law, nor country law is provided. Question 8. Do you justify the attack on Iraq in the name of ‘attack on terrorism’? Support your answer with any two arguments. (Delhi 2011) Answer: No, the attack on Iraq by the US in the name of ‘attack on terrorism’ cannot be justified. The two arguments which support the statement are: 1. On 19th March 2003, the US launched its invasion of Iraq under the name ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’. More than forty other countries joined the US-led ‘coalition of the willing’ after the UN refused to give its mandate to the invasion. The purpose of the invasion was to prevent Iraq from developing Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). Since no evidence of Weapons of Mass Destruction has been unearthed in Iraq, it is speculated that the invasion was motivated by other objectives. 2. The invasion was motivated with the objective of controlling Iraq oil fields and installing a US-friendly regime in Iraq. Question 9. How far is it correct to say that the 9/11 attack on the World Trade Centre was the attack on the US hegemony? Explain, (All India 2011) Answer: It is correct to say that the 9/11 attack on the World Trade Centre was the attack on the US hegemony. The US had established its hegemony through the launch of two operations namely. ‘Operation Desert Storm’ where 75 per cent of the coalition forces were from the US and ‘Operation Infiniti Reach’, a series of cruise missile strikes on Al-Qaeda. These operations made the US more confident of the US hegemony that no one could challenge it. But suddenly hijackers from Arab Countries attacked on World Trade Centre on 11th September 2001 along with the other important buildings. It was the most severe attack on US soil since the foundation of the country in 1776. This way the hegemony of the US was challenged and attacked. Question 10. What was the Gulf War of 1990? (All Indio 2009) Answer: In August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait, occupied and annexed it. United Nations tried to convince Iraq to quit its aggression, but the UN failed to convince. Then the UN-mandated the liberation of Kuwait by force. The US President George H.W. Bush hailed the emergence of ‘New World Order’. In response to this, there was an emergence of war which came to be known as ‘First Gulf War’. In this war, a huge coalition force from almost 34 countries fought against Iraq. This war was fought under the code name of ‘Operation Desert Storm’. This operation of the UN was mostly American. There was about 75 per cent of forces from the US. The First Gulf War revealed the vast technological gap that had opened up between US military forces and other countries. The use of smart bombs made it computer war. And widespread television coverage made it video game war. Question 11. What is ‘Bandwagon strategy’? How does it differ from the strategy of ‘hide’? (All Indio 2008) Answer: The ‘Bandwagon Strategy’ suggests that instead of engaging in activities opposed to the hegemonic power, it is advocated to extract benefits by working within a hegemonic system. For instance, raising economic growth rates requires increased trade, technology transfers and investment which are best acquired by working with rather than against the hegemony. On the other hand, the ‘Hide Strategy’ advocates that it is better to stay as far removed from the dominant power as possible. These attributes of hiding Strategy were noticed in China, Russia and the European Union. Question 12. President Clinton focussed on ‘soft issues’ such as ‘democracy promotion’ and ‘World Trade’. Highlight any two occasions when he used military power. (All India 2008) Answer: It the following occasions, Bill Clinton used military power :

Question 13. “Economic preponderance of the US is inseparable from the structural power”. Describe, (HOTS; AII India 2008) Answer: An economic preponderance of the US is inseparable from its structural power. This can be justified in the following way:

The first business school in the world, the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania, was established in 1881. The first MBA course was initiated around 1900. The first MBA course outside the US was established only in 1950. Today, there is no country in the world in which the MBA is not a prestigious academic degree.

Question 1. “Resistance is the only option available to overcome the US hegemony”. Justify the statement by comparing it to other anti-hegemony strategies, (HOTS; All India 2017) Answer: The US hegemony has been symbolised as the global village and other countries as its neighbours. For example, if the head man of a village becomes intolerable, the villagers won’t have any choice of leaving it, but they would develop a resistant. In a similar situation, where the USA dominates, resistance is the only option available to overcome the US hegemony. Though there are some rules and norms called Laws of War that restrict but do not prohibit war, no single power can challenge the US military. So, in order to overcome the US hegemony, the following anti-hegemony strategies have been found out:

However, even though the above strategies are followed some people argued that ‘resistance’ to American hegemony would be the best and effective strategy to tackle the US. hegemony. These challenges to American hegemony will emerge in the economic and cultural realms. They will come from a combination of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) social movements, public opinions; in the form of media and intellectuals, artists and writers. These various actors may well form links across national boundaries, including with Americans to criticise and resist US politics. Hence, resistance will be the only option available to overcome US hegemony. Question 2. Analyse the three different views within India about the type of relationship India should have with the United States of America, (HOTS; Delhi 2016) Answer: The three different views within India about the type of relationship India should have with the United States of America are ;

Question 3. Examine any three factors responsible for the US hegemony in world politics. (Delhi 2015; All India 2009) Answer: Factors responsible for the US hegemony in world politics are ; 1. Military capability After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, USA emerged as a superpower of the world. The USA showed her military power and strength in the First Gulf War of 1990. The USA was leading the coalition and 75 per cent of forces in it were of US. The US included sophisticated arms and many modern technologies to fight this war. US hegemony can be noticed, where it spends most of its earnings on military capability than the next 12 powers of the world. 2. Economic and technological advancement Presence of US can be acknowledged in all sectors of the world economy and technology. 3. Financial assistance Poverty in developing the world and financial assistance to these countries by the US helped in enhancing US hegemony. The global network of a satellite is owned by the US Government only. Internet is the direct outcome of US military research project. Question 4. Explain the three types of US hegemony and give suitable examples for each. (Delhi 2011) OR Analyse the three different interpretations of American hegemony. (All India 2009) Answer: The three types of US hegemony 1. As a hard power, the US power lies in the superiority of its military power. The notion of hegemony as military domination is relevant to the current position of the US in world politics. American military power is both absolute and relative. Thus, the military dominance of the US is not first based on higher military spending, but on a qualitative gap and a technological charm. Attack on Vietnam is an example of the US hard power hegemony. 2. For hegemony as structural power. The hegemony of the United States of America as a structural power emerges from a particular understanding of the world economy. It can be summed up as follows:

3. Hegemony as soft power It deals with the capacity to ‘manufacture or develop consent’. This relates to clan superiority in social, political and, particularly ideological spheres. The predominance of US in the world today is based not only on its military and economic power but also on its cultural presence. America is most appealing in the sense of most powerful culture on Earth. Diffusion of American culture in other countries is an example of soft power. Question 5. What is meant by ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’? Mention its main objective as well as the hidden objective. Explain any two consequences of this operation. (All India 2011) Answer: Operation Iraqi Freedom It was the code name given to the invasion of Iraq by the US. This operation was launched on 19th March. 2003. More than 40 other countries joined the ‘coalition of the willing’ after the UN refused to give permission for the invasion. Main objectives and hidden objective: The main, as well as the hidden objective of the invasion, was to prevent Iraq from developing the Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). When no proof of WMD was found in Iraq, it was speculated that the invasion was motivated by the other objectives which include controlling oil fields of Iraq and installing a regime friendly to the United States. Two consequences of the ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’

Question 6. Analyse the different ways in which American hegemony could be overcome? (Delhi 2009) OR How can US hegemony in the world politics be checked? (All indin 2009) Answer: The different ways in which American hegemony can be overcome are

Question 7. How did the United States of America launch a war against Iraq? (All India 2009) Answer: On 19th March 2003, the US launched its invasion of Iraq under the code name ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’. More than forty other countries joined in the US-led ‘coalition of the willing’ after the UN refused to give its mandate to the invasion. The purpose of the invasion was to prevent Iraq from developing Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). Since no evidence of WMD was found in Iraq, it was speculated that the invasion was motivated by other objectives, such as controlling Iraqi oil fields and installing a regime friendly to the US. Although the Government of Saddam Hussein fell swiftly, the US has not been able to ‘pacify’ Iraq. Instead, a full-fledged insurgency against the US, the occupation was ignited in Iraq. While the US has lost over 3000 military personnel in the war, Iraqi casualties were very much higher. It is conservatively estimated that 50,000 Iraq civilians have been killed since the US-led invasion. It is now widely recognised that the US invasion of Iraq in some crucial respects was both a military and political failure. Question 8. Evaluate India’s changing relationship with the USA. (Delhi 2009) OR Examine India’s changing relations with the USA. (All Indio 2009) OR Examine India-US relations. (Delhi 2008) Answer: India-US relations have changed from time to time. During the Cold War period, India’s friendship was with the Soviet Union. With the sudden disintegration of the Soviet Union, India found itself lonely. Then India decided to liberalise its economy and integrate it with the global economy. India’s impressive economic growth and decision to liberalise the economy have resulted in making the country an attractive economic partner for many countries including the US also. The factors like technological dimension and Indian-American diaspora have made India-US relations more cordial. Now the US absorbs about 65% of India’s total exports in the software sector. 3 lakhs Indians are working in Silicon valley. 15% of the high-tech start-ups are by Indian- Americans Question 9. Analyse the role of USA in Global War on terrorism after the attack on the World Trade Centre on 9/11 in 2001? (Delhi 2009) Answer: The US response to 9/11 was swift and Cruel. George Bush of Republican Party had become President at the time of the attack on World Trade Centre. Role of the USA on Global War on terrorism could be understood through the following points:

Question 10. What are the constraints on American hegemony today? Which one of these do you expect to become more important in future? (Delhi 2009; All India 2009) OR Analyse the main constraints to the US hegemony in the present day world. (All India 2009) OR Analyse the main constraints to the US hegemony in the present day world. (All India 2009) Answer: There are three constraints on American power. The biggest restriction to American hegemony lies within the heart of hegemony itself. These constraints are

For the first and second constraints. The US launched ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’ as a part of ‘Global War on Terror’, against all those suspected behind the 9/11 attack mainly Al-Qaeda and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. Although the Taliban regime in Afghanistan was easily overthrown, terrorist attacks by Al-Qaeda and the Taliban still continue and more so against Western targets. The target of operation made by the US forces was all over the world. They arrest people without the knowledge of the government of the persons being arrested. These persons were detained in secret prisons. Some of them were brought to Guantanamo Bay, a US Naval base in Cuba, where they have neither protection of international law, nor their own country law on that the US. Even UN representatives are not allowed to interact with these prisoners. The two constraints on American hegemony are: 1. The institutional architecture of the American state is the very first constraint. In America, there is a system of division of powers between the branches of government. Due to this division of power restrictions are placed on the executive branch upon the exercise of American military power. 2. The second constraint stems from the open nature of American society. It is basically domestic in nature. Peoples’ participation regarding deep questioning of working of government is seen. This factor is a huge constraint on US military action overseas. 3. The third constraint is the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). It is the most significant among all and would get more importance in future. NATO is the only organisation in the international system that could possibly moderate the exercise of American power because it has a strong hold as the US market economy. The third constraint regarding NATO is the most important for the future. Question 11. Assess the ‘New World Order’ which emerged after the collapse of the Soviet Union? (Delhi 2009) Answer: The sudden disintegration of the Soviet Union surprised all the US hegemony began in 1991 after the disintegration of the Soviet Union from the international scene. In August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait, occupied and annexed it. United Nations tried to convince Iraq to quit its aggression, but the UN failed to convince. Then the UN-mandated the liberation of Kuwait by force. The US President George HW Bush hailed the emergence of ‘New World Order’. In response to this, there was an emergence of war which came to be known as ‘First Gulf War’. In this war, a huge coalition force from almost 34 countries fought against Iraq. This war was fought under the code name of ‘Operation Desert Storm’. This operation of the UN was mostly American. There was about 75 percent of forces from the US. The First Gulf War revealed the vast technological gap that had opened up between the US military forces and other countries. The use of smart bombs made it computer war. And widespread television coverage made it video game war. Question 12. Analyse the political impact of the hegemony of the US on the world. (All Indio 2008) Answer: It would be wrong to see US hegemony in purely military or economic terms without having consideration of political (ideological) or the cultural dimension of US hegemony. In this sense, hegemony is about the capacity to ‘manufacture consent’. Here, hegemony is concerned with social, political and particularly ideological superiority. Hegemony arises when the dominant nation wins the consent of the dominated class by convincing them to view the world in a manner they view the world. In the field of world politics and international relation, the notion of hegemony suggests that superpower USA uses not only military power but also ideological resources (political power) to shape and determine the direction of world politics as well as the behaviour of other competing and smaller states. Not only this the USA also influences the behaviour and action of weaker states in such a way that favours its interests. This attribute of hegemony is called soft power where the superpower US dominate the international relation and world politics through political persuasion than coercion.

Question 1. Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the questions that follow (Delhi 2015, 2011) (i) Which country is represented by this mighty soldier? (ii) Why have the names of so many countries been written on the uniform of the soldier? (iii) What message does this cartoon convey to the international community? Answer: (i) The mighty soldier with weapons represents the USA. (ii) The names of so many countries have been written on the uniform of the soldier because the US forces are ready to set-up hegemony to the West and Central Asia. (iii) The cartoon conveys that the US can go to any extent to work in its own self-interest. It did not even stop from fighting a war against Iraq, even after the UN did not give its mandate.

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