Important Questions Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2 The End Bipolarity
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1 Mark Questions Question 1. Highlight any one feature of the multi-polar world as visualized by both Russia and India. (All India 2017) Answer: A multi-polar world is characterised by the co-existence of multiple power centres in the international system, E.g., USA, Russia, China, Japan, etc. Question 2. Which one of the following statements about the Berlin war is false? (Delhi 2016) (i) It symbolised the division between the capitalist and the communist world. (ii) It was built immediately after the Second World War. (iii) It was broken by the people on 9 November 1989. (iv) It marked the unification of the two parts of Germany. Answer: (iv) It marked the unification of the two parts of Germany. Question 3. Which one of the following was NOT given primacy by the makers of the Soviet system? (AH India 2016) (i) Abolition of private property. (ii) A society based on the principle of equality. (iii) No opposition party to be allowed. (iv) No state control over the economy. Answer: (iv) No state control over the economy. Question 4. Define ‘Bipolarity’. (Delhi 2015) Answer: Bipolarity can be defined as a system of world order in which the majority of global economic, military and cultural influence is held between two states. Question 5. Highlight any one major distinction between the Soviet economy and the capitalist economy. (All India 2015) Answer: The Soviet system was based on the principles of equality and the planned economy controlled by the state. Whereas in the capitalist economy, private ownership is dominant. Land and productive assets are owned and controlled by the capitalist. Question 6. Highlight any one consequence of ‘Shock Therapy’. (All India 2015) Answer: The Shock Therapy ruined the economy and people of the entire region. The large state-controlled industrial complex almost collapsed as about 90 per cent of its industries were put for sale. Question 7. How was the US benefitted by the Soviet disintegration? (AH Indio 2015) Answer: The US benefitted by the Soviet disintegration due to the economic crisis of the USSR. The Soviet Union used much of its resources in maintaining a nuclear and military arsenal and the development of its satellite states in Eastern Europe and within the Soviet system. Question 8. What is the new name of the former USSR? (All Indio 2011) Answer: The new name of the former USSR is ‘Russia’. Question 9. For how many years did the Civil War continue in Tajikistan? When did it come to an end? (Delhi 2012: All India 2010) Answer: The Civil War in Tajikistan continued for 10 years. It came to an end in 2001. Question 10. The transition from an authoritarian socialist system to democratic capitalism was influenced by the IMF and the World Bank. What was this transition known as? (All India 2010) Answer: The transition was called ‘Shock Therapy’. Question 11. Which two republics of the USSR have had violent secessionist movements at the time of its disintegration? (Delhi 2010) Answer: Chechnya and Dagestan were the two republics of the USSR which have violent secessionist movements at the time of its disintegration. Question 12. As a result of ‘Shock Therapy’, to which economic system, each state of the Soviet bloc was gradual to be absorbed? (Delhi 2008) Answer: As a result of ‘Shock Therapy’ each state of the Soviet bloc was gradual to be absorbed in the capitalist system. Question 13. On which ideology was the Soviet political system based? (All India 2008) Answer: The Soviet political system was based on the ideology of socialism and communism. Question 14. Mention the name of the Eastern alliance led by the Soviet Union. (Delhi 2008) Answer: Warsaw Pact was the name of the Eastern alliance led by the Soviet Union.
2 Marks Questions Question 1. State any two features of the Soviet system. (Delhi 2014) OR Which were the two important features of the Soviet system? (All India 2013) OR List any two characteristics of the Soviet Union. (AH India (C) 2008) OR Mention any two characteristics of the Soviet political system. (Delhi 2012, 2008; All India 2008) Answer: The two features of the Soviet system were :
Question 2. What is meant of ‘Shock Therapy’? (All India 2014,2009; Delhi 2013) Answer: The dissolution of the USSR was correlated with the downfall of communism in the countries which were members of the socialist bloc. These post-Soviet countries underwent a process of transition from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system. The model of transition came to be called ‘Shock Therapy’. It was facilitated by the World Bank and IMF, the Bretton Woods institutions. Question 3. Mention any two characteristics of the Soviet economy during the Cold War days. (All Indio 2012) Answer: Two characteristics of the Soviet economy during the cold war days were as follows:
Question 4. Why is it said that the collapse of the Berlin Wall signified the collapse of the bipolar world? (HOTS: Delhi; 2011.2009) Answer: The Berlin Wall was the hallmark of the Cold War. It symbolised the division between the capitalist and the communist world; a bipolar world. But, after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, people on 9th November 1989 broke the wall marking it as a symbol of unification of the East and West Germany into a single country with Berlin as its capital. The fall of the Berlin Wall was then followed by a line of events which marked the end of the Cold War and more importantly collapse of the bipolar world. Question 5. List any two consequences of ‘Shock Therapy’. (Delhi 2010) OR Mention any two negative effects of ‘Shock therapy’. (All India 2008) Answer: Two consequences or the two negative effects ‘Shock Therapy’ were
Question 6. Why did the Soviet Union disintegrate? Highlight any two arguments in support of your answer. Delhi 2010 OR Mention any two main reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union. (All Indio 2009) Answer: The USSR disintegrated because :
Question 7. List any two differences between the socialist and communist parties. HOTS; All India 2008 Answer: Differences between socialist and communist parties follow
4 Marks Questions Question 1. Describe any four consequences of ‘Shock Therapy’. (Delhi 2014) Answer: The term ‘Shock Therapy’ meant the transitional model from being a socialist country to a capitalist country influenced by the World Bank and the IMF. Four consequences of ‘Shock Therapy’ were :
Question 2. Explain any two reasons for the disintegration of the USSR. (Delhi 2013) OR Explain any four factors responsible for the disintegration of the Soviet Union. (All India 2010) Answer: Factors responsible for the disintegration of the Soviet Union were :
Question 3. Describe any four consequences of the disintegration of the Soviet Union. (All India 2011) Answer: The consequences of the disintegration of the Soviet Union were : (any four)
6 Marks Questions Question 1. In what three ways did the collapse of the Soviet Union affect world politics? Explain. All India 2017 OR Examine any six consequences of the disintegration of the Soviet Union. (All Indio 2014,2010; Delhi 2013, 2012,2008 [C]) Answer: For the consequences of the disintegration of the USSR, The consequences of the disintegration of the Soviet Union were : (any four)
Question 2. Highlight any three positive and three negative features each of the Soviet system in the Soviet Union. (Delhi 2016) Answer: The three positive features of the Soviet system were :
The three negative features of the Soviet system were:
Question 3. How did the Soviet Union suddenly disintegrated? Explain any six reasons, (All India 2016) OR Describe any six factors responsible for the disintegration of USSR. (Delhi 2015) OR Explain any three reasons for the disintegration of the USSR. (Delhi 2014) OR Examine any six factors which led to the disintegration of the former Soviet Union. (Delhi 2011) Answer: Following are the reasons for the disintegration of the USSR : 1. Leadership crisis It was the most important cause of the disintegration of the Soviet Union. There was no dear cut line between the party and government as there was one political party which was wielding power. The leader of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) was placed at the helm of affairs of the government/state. The CPSU managed to impress people for a substantial period. However, later on, the leadership of the CPSU lost its sheen owing to corruption and simultaneously lost people’s confidence. 2. Gorbachev’s policies Mikhail Gorbachev’s policies of Perestroika and Glasnost proved to be disastrous for the economic health of the USSR. He did not create conducive conditions for the implementation of the twin policies. Gorbachev ignored the presence of anti-community forces and did not try to uproot them from the Soviet Union. 3. Anti-communist elements had reached at its peak Gorbachev’s ignorance and his liberal outlook, in turn, strengthened the anti-communal forces in Eastern Europe. Consequently, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria and East Germany witnessed the downfall of the communist regimes. These sudden developments paved the way for the disintegration of the USSR. 4. Economic stagnation The Soviet economy remained stagnant for many years which led to severe consumer shortages. Much of the resources were used in maintaining a nuclear and military arsenal and the development of its satellite states. 5. Stagnant administration The administration and political system of the Soviet Union became stagnant. The Communist Party that ruled the Soviet Union for over 70 years was not accountable to the people. Rampant corruption, unwillingness to allow more openness in government led to the collapse of the system. 6. Rise of nationalism and desires The final and the most immediate cause for the disintegration of the USSR was the rise of nationalism and the desire for sovereignty within various republics including Russia and the Baltic Republics. Question 4. Describe the role of Gorbachev to reform the Soviet system and the effects of these reforms on the USSR. (Delhi 2015) Answer: Mikhail Gorbachev was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1985. He initiated reforms in the Soviet system and tried to normalise relations with the West He also tried to democratise and reform the Soviet Union. Some of the reforms initiated by Gorbachev are :
The reforms initiated by Gorbachev had following effects on the USSR :
Question 5. Describe the factors that make most of the former Soviet Republics prone to conflicts and threats. (Delhi 2015) OR Give any three examples to show that most of the former Soviet Republics were prone to conflicts and tensions. (Delhi 2013) Answer: The present-day conflicts which the post-Soviet republics are confronted with can be traced to the old days when the USSR had existed. With the downfall of the USSR, Russia has experienced high levels of ethnic conflicts pertaining to exit claims by former satellite states that rose against the idea of federation. Exit claims antagonised the state leading to a clash between the interest of the centre and the constituent states resulting in massive human right violations in Chechnya and in other regions. The three factors that make most of the former Soviet republics prone to conflicts and threats are: 1. Chechnya conflict which began in 1994 has led to the demand for independence. It has been the bone of contention between separatists and the Government of Russia for decades. Russia has been criticised for its actions which led to the mass killing of the people in Chechnya. 2. Tajikistan conflict Tajikistan also experienced a decade long Civil War fuelled primarily by a clash between ethnic groups. It ended in 2001. The cause of the Civil War lies in the period after the end of the Cold War where the legitimacy crisis erupted after presidential elections in Tajikistan. It took the form of a Civil War. 3. Georgia conflict Like the other post-Soviet states, Georgia also fell prey to the internal conflicts and instability which had accumulated since the days of the Soviet Union. Declaring independence, Georgia witnessed two gruesome conflicts in the country. These conflicts proved to be painful for the country as it created divided societies following divergent interests. Question 6. If the Soviet Union had not disintegrated and the world had remained bipolar, how would that situation have affected world politics? (All India 2015) Answer: If the Soviet Union had not disintegrated, it would have affected world politics in the following manner:
Question 7. What was the Soviet system? Assess any four features of the Soviet system. (Delhi 2013) Answer: The Soviet system was based on the critique of capitalism which declares that capitalism un avoiding leads never-ending impoverishment and exploitation of the masses. It stressed that capitalism can never equate itself with mass production for the satisfaction of human needs. The Soviet system was largely pro-poor in orientation with social policies aimed at the welfare of the masses. The Soviet system was constituted after the Russian Revolution of 1917, based on equality and planned economy. Four features of the Soviet system are :
Question 8. Explain any six factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate reforms in the Soviet Union. (Delhi 2012) OR What were the factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate reforms in the USSR? (All Indio 2010) Answer: The six factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate reforms in the Soviet Union were :
Question 9. ‘Although India has maintained good relations with all the post-communist countries, yet the strongest relations are still between India and Russia?’ Explain the statement with any three suitable arguments. (HOTS; Delhi 2012, 2010) OR Why are India’s relations with Russia considered an important aspect of India’s foreign policy? Explain. (All India 2012) Answer: India has maintained good relations with all the Post-Communist countries but it has the strongest relation with Russia which continues to date. Following are some arguments to support the statement: 1. Indo-Russian relation is an important segment of India’s foreign policy. The relations between these two countries are embedded in a history of trust and common interests and are matched by popular perceptions. Famous Bollywood personalities are common names in Russia. 2. Both countries share a vision of a multipolar world order. A multipolar world is the co-existence of several powers in the international system, collective security, greater regionalism, negotiated settlements of international conflicts, an independent foreign policy for all countries and decision-making through bodies like the UN. 3. From this relationship, India gets benefits on issues like Kashmir, energy supplies, sharing information on international terrorism, access to Central Asia and balancing its relations with China. On the other hand, Russia stands to benefit from this relationship because India is the second largest arms market for Russia. The Indian military gets most of its hardware from Russia. 4. Russia is vital for India as it has repeatedly come to the assistance of India during its oil crisis. India is trying to increase its energy imports from Russia and the republics of Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. 5. Apart from this, Russia is important for India’s nuclear energy plants and assisted India’s space industry. For example, Russia has provided the cryogenic rocket when India needed it. Dut to the above reasons, Russia is considered an important aspect of India’s foreign policy. Question 10. What is meant by ‘Shock therapy’? Assess its consequences on the Post-Communist regimes? (Delhi 2009) Answer: For a meaning of Shock therapy, The dissolution of the USSR was correlated with the downfall of communism in the countries which were members of the socialist bloc. These post-Soviet countries underwent a process of transition from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system. The model of transition came to be called ‘Shock Therapy’. It was facilitated by the World Bank and IMF, the Bretton Woods institutions. For consequences of Shock Therapy on the post-communist regimes. The term ‘Shock Therapy’ meant the transitional model from being a socialist country to a capitalist country influenced by the World Bank and the IMF. Four consequences of ‘Shock Therapy’ were :
Question 11. Examine India’s relationship with the former Soviet Union during the Cold War. (Delhi 2009) Answer: India and the former Soviet Union enjoyed a cordial relationship during the Cold War. The relation between the two was a multi-dimensional relationship
Question 12. ‘India and the USSR enjoyed a special relationship during the Cold War, which led critics to say that India was a part of the Soviet camp.’ Do you agree? Support your answer with any two arguments. (HOTS; All India 2008) Answer: Yes, the special relationship between India and USSR reflected this. First, India’s Non-Alignment was said to be ‘unprincipled’. In the name of pursuing its national interest. India, it was said, often refused to take a firm stand on crucial international issues. Second, it is suggested that India was inconsistent and took contradictory postures. Having criticised others for joining alliances, India signed the Treaty of Friendship in August 1971 with the USSR for 20 years. This was regarded, particularly by outside observers, as virtually joining the Soviet alliance system. However, the Indian Government’s view was that India needed diplomatic and possibly military support during the Bangladesh crisis and that in any case, the treaty did not stop India from having good relations with other countries including the US. Question 13. Examine any six characteristics of the Soviet system during 1971-1991. (All Indio (C) 2008) Answer: The USSR contained 15 constituent republics, it was formed on 30th December 1924 with the adoption of a federal Constitution. It was the largest country in terms of area. Following are its six characteristics in the time period of 20 years
Passage-Based Questions Question 1. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions (Delhi 2016) Each of these countries was required to make a total shift to a capitalist economy, which meant rooting out completely any structures evolved during this period. Above all, it meant that private ownership was to be the dominant pattern of ownership of property. Privatisation of state assets and corporate ownership patterns were to be immediately brought in. Collective farms were to be replaced by private farming and capitalism in agriculture. This transition rules out any alternate or ‘third way’. (i) Name any two countries which were required to make a total shift? (ii) Why were the collective farms to be replaced by private farming? (iii) Since the ‘third way’ has been ruled out, what were the only two ways of controlling the economy? Answer: (i) Two countries which were required to make a total shift were Russia and Kazakhstan. (ii) The collective farms were replaced by private farming for making private ownership as a dominant pattern of ownership of property. (iii) The only two ways of controlling the economy were capitalist’economy and ‘Shock therapy’. Question 2. The value of the Ruble declined dramatically. The rate of inflation was so high that people lost all their savings. The collective farm system disintegrated leaving people without food security, and the government started to import food. The old trading structure broke down with no alternative in its place. The old system of social welfare was systematically destroyed. The withdrawal of government subsidies pushed large sections of the people into poverty. (All India 2016) (i) What is meant by subsidy? (ii) How did the disintegration of the collective farm system lead to the loss of food security? (iii) This passage is associated with which country? Why did the government start importing food? Answer: (i) A subsidy is a sum of money granted by the state or a public body to help an industry or business keep the price of a commodity or service low. (ii) The disintegration of the collective farm system led to capitalism in agriculture which left people without food security because state-sponsored subsidies, food grains etc to poor were put to an end under a capitalist system. (iii) The given passage is associated with Russia. The government started importing food to meet the shortage of food. Question 3. Study the passage given below carefully and answer the questions that follow (All India 2013) The collapse of communism was followed in most of these countries by a painful process of transition from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system. Privatisation of state assets and corporate ownership patterns were to be immediately brought in. (i) Why has the process of transition been ’ described as painful? (ii) Which political system existed before the transition and which system replaced it, if any? (iii) What does privatisation imply? Answer: (i) The transition has been described as painful because it underlined the collapse of communism which was followed by a shift from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic system. (ii) An authoritarian political system crystallised by the socialist model of development had existed before the transition. It was replaced by a democratic capitalist system. (iii) Privatisation means a reduction in state planning whereby state resorts to disinvestment and encourages private ownership of property and means of production.
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Socialist party believes in gradual change while
The Communist party believes in radical and fundamental change.
Socialist party aims at improvement and reform in society while
The Communist party aims at a restructuring of an entire society.