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Important Questions Class 12 Political Science Chapter 18 Recent Developments Indian Politics

Free PDF download of Important Questions for CBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 18 Recent Developments in Indian Politics prepared by expert Political Science teachers from latest edition of CBSE(NCERT) books, On StudySolver.Org to score more marks in CBSE board examination. You can also Download  Political Science Revision Notes Class 12  to help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations. Jump to 4 Marks Questions Jump to 6 Marks Questions jump to 2 Marks Questions jump to Value Based Questions jump to Passage-Based Questions

Question 1. Name the two alliances-fronts that formed the government at the centre in 1989 and 1996 respectively. (All India 2014) Answer: Two alliances-fronts that formed the government at the centre are

Question 2. From which year did the era of coalition governments at the centre begin in India? (Delhi 2013) Answer: The era of coalition government at the centre begin in India since 1989. Question 3. Mention any two incidents of violence against the minority community which are a threat to democracy? (Delhi 2012) Answer: The two incidents of violence against the minority community which area threat to democracy are

Question 4. In which year did the Congress party win 415 Lok Sabha seats? Who became the Prime Minister at that time? (Delhi 2012, 2011) Answer: Congress party won 415 seats in the Lok Sabha election in 1984. And Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister at that time. Question 5. Why was Babri Masjid demolished? (Delhi 2011) Answer: Some organisation were supporting the construction of temple at the place of Babri Masjid and the voluntary service for building the Ram temple was known as Karseva. Thousands of people gathered at Ayodhya and finally they demolished the Babri Masjid to clear land for construction of Lord Ram Temple. Question 6. Name the founder of Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP). (Delhi 2011) Answer: The name of founder of Bahujan Samaj Party was ‘Kanshi Ram’. Question 7. Which two diametrically opposite political groups supported the National Front Government in 1989? (All India 2011) Answer: The two political groups who supported National Front Government in 1989 were the BJP and Left front. Question 8. Since 1989 until the election of 2004 which party has been gaining strength in Lok Sabha? (Delhi 2008) Answer: The party which was gaining strength in Lok Sabha since 1989 was Bhartiya Janata Party. Question 9. What was the Mandal Commission ? When was it appointed? (Delhi to 2008) Answer: The Mandal Commission was set-up on 1st January, 1979 to determine the criteria of identifying the socially and educationally backward class. Question 10. What was the Ayodhya dispute? (Delhi (C) 2008) Answer: Ayodhya dispute was a dispute between the Hindus and the Muslims over a mosque in Ayodhya known as Babri Masjid. Question 11. Correct and Re-write the following (All India (C) 2008) In 1987 the Backward and Minority Federation (BAMCEF) was formed. Answer: In 1978, the ‘Backward and Minority Communities Employees Federation (BAMCEF) was formed.

Question 1. Who was the chairperson of Mandal Commission? State any one recommendation made by him/her. (Delhi 2014) OR Highlight any two recommendations of the Mandal Commission. (Delhi 2013) Answer: Mandal Commission was established in India in 1979 by the Janata party government. Under the Prime Minister Moraiji Desai. The two recommendations of the Mandal Commission are as follows :

Question 2. Highlight any two effects of the Election 1989 on the politics of India. (Delhi 2014) Answer: Two effects of Election of 1989 on Indian Politics are :

Question 3. What does a coalition government mean? Mention any one example of such a government. (All India 2013) Answer: When two or more parties join hands together to form a government is known as coalition government. eg-UPA, NDA etc. In 1977, the first coalition government was formed. Question 4. What was the change in the electoral performance of the Congress party and BJP from 1984-2004? (Delhi 2012) Answer: The change in the electoral performance of the Congress and BJP from 1984-2004 is as under :

Question 5. Political equations in coalition governments are unstable. How was this concept reflected in the formation of National Front Government in 1989 and United Front Government in 1996? (All India 2012) Answer: In 1989, the coalition government began in India and many political parties shared the government at the centre. This political phenomena clearly reflects political instability and uncertainly. United front was formed to keep out Congress from government. It was formed in 1996 with the support of BJP and Left front. HD Deva Gowda was Prime Minister of United front and after him IK Gujral became the Prime Minister. Question 6. Give any two arguments in favour of reservation for the SCs, STs and OBCs in higher education institutions in India. (All India 2011) Answer: The two arguments in favour of reservation for SCs, STs and OBCs in higher education institutions in India are as follows :

Question 7. What is Ayodhya dispute? Explain. (Delhi 2011) OR When was the disputed structure in Ayodhya demolished? How was the State. Government punished? (Delhi, 2008) Answer: On 6th December, 1992 the disputed structure of Ayodhya i.e Babri Masjid was demolished. The BJP government of Uttar Pradesh was dismissed and a case was registered against the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh in Supreme Court for contempt of court. Question 8. What was the main reason for the anti-Muslim riots in Gujarat in 2002? (All India 2011; Delhi 2011) Answer: In February-March 2002 large scale violence took place against Muslims in Gujarat because

Question 9. What is meant by ‘coalition’? During which period did this type of government gain popularity for the first time at the centre in India. (Delhi 2010) Answer: When two or more political parties join their hands together form a government, that type of government is called a Coalition Government. In 1977 coalition government gain popularity for the first time.

Question 1. In what way do the coalition governments prove to be more democratic than the one-party governments? (All India 2015) OR When and why did a long phase of coalition politics begin in India? (Delhi 2012) OR Explain the impact of coalition governments on India politics. (Delhi 2011) OR What is alliance politics? How has it influenced the Indian politics? (All India 2011) OR How far is it correct to say that coalition government in India has helped in arriving at some consensus? (Delhi 2009) OR Describe any two advantages and two disadvantages of coalition government in India. (Delhi 2009) Answer: When two or more parties join hands together to form a government is known as coalition government, e.g UPA, NDA etc. Two advantages of coalition government are as follows :

Two disadvantages of coalition government are as follows :

Question 2. When was the Mandal Commission set-up? Describe any two recommendations of this commission. (Delhi 2015) OR How was the main recommendation of Mandal Commission? How was it implemented? (Delhi 2008) Answer: Mandal Commission was set-up by the new National front government in 1990. The two recommendations of the Mandal Commission are as follows :

Question 3. Describe the era of multi-party system in India after 1989. (Delhi 2015) Answer: Elections in 1989 led to the defeat of the Congress party but did not result in a majority for any other party. Though Congress was the largest party in the Lok Sabha, it did not have a clear majority. The defeat of the Congress party marked the end of Congress dominance over the Indian party system. Way back in the late sixties, the dominance of the Congress party was challenged; but the Congress under the leadership of Indira Gandhi managed to re-establish its predominant position in politics. The nineties saw yet another challenge to the predominant position of the Congress. It did not, however, mean the emergence of any other single party to fill in its place. Thus, began an era of a multi-party system. To be sure, a large number of political parties always contested elections in our country. Our Parliament always had representatives from several political parties. What happened after 1989 was the emergence of several parties in such a way that one or two parties did not get most of the votes of seats. This also meant that no single party secured a clear majority of seats in any Lok Sabha election held since 1989. This development initiated an era of coalition governments at the Centre, in which regional parties played a crucial role in forming ruling alliances. The nineties also saw the emergence of powerful parties and movements that represented the Dalit and backward castes (Other Backward Classes or OBC). Many of these parties represented powerful regional assertion as well. Question 4. Describe any four major developments in Indian politics since 1989. (Delhi 2015) OR Describe any two developments witnessed by India after 1990. (All India 2011) OR Describe briefly any four main developments, witnessed by the country from 1989 to 1992. (All India 2008) Answer: Towards the end of 1980s, country saw five major development which are as follows (any four) : 1. End of Congress  system mean dominance of Congress for two decades. But the most important event was the defeat of Congress party in the 1989’s elections. The party had won only 197 seats, which was very low in comparision to 1984 elections where party won 415 seats. The Congress boosted up its performance and finally it came back to power in 1991, after Rajiv Gandhi’s assassination. But the elections of 1989 marked the end of what political scientists have called the ‘Congress system’, congress remained as major party but it lost its dominance as it enjoyed earlier in the party system. 2. Mandal Issue  The Mandal issue started with the National Front government’s decision to implement the recommendations of Mandal Commission in 1990. The recommendation was that 27 per cent of job in the Central Government should be reserved for other backward classes’s candidates only. Thus, it brought widespread dismay and anger. This conflict between supporters and opponents of OBC reservation was popularly called ‘Mandal issue’. It played a crucial role in shaping politics since 1989. 3. New Economic Reforms  The new Ans economic reforms were announced as the structural adjustment programme. These reforms were initiated by Rajiv Gandhi, but these were more visible in Narsimha Rao’s Government in the year 1991. These reforms faced many criticism, but the upcoming governments have continued to follow these. 4. Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi  There was a change in leadership due to assassination of Rajiv Gandhi in May 1991. He was assassinated during his election campaign in Tamil Nadu by a Sri Lankan Tamil linked to the LTTE. The elections of 1991 witnessed Congress party emerging as the single largest party.Though death of Rajiv Gandhi led to the appointment of Narsimha Rao as the Prime Minister. 5. Ayodhya Issue  The Ayodhya issue was started with the demolition of Babri Masjid in December, 1992. This, incident led to violence and many questions were raised about the nature of Indian nationalism and secularsm. This issue exemplified and provoked various changes in the politics of the country and guided the rise of the BJP and the politics of Hindutva. Question 5. Rewrite the names of any of the following Prime Ministers in the chronological order keeping in mind the period of their Prime Ministership. (All India 2010) (i) Chandrashekhar (ii) Narasimha Rao (iii) HD Deve Gowda (iv) IK Gujral (v) VP Singh Answer: Chronological order for the period of their Prime Ministership (i) VP Singh (ii) Chandrashekhar (iii) Narasimha Rao (iv) HD Deva Gowda (v) IK Gujral Question 6. ‘In the new era of coalition politics political parties are not aligning on the basis of ideology’. Explain. (Delhi 2009) Answer: Three features of coalition government has been given in which we have to understand the not aligning and re-aligning on the basis of ideologies. These are :

Question 7. What was Godhra episode? What were its after-effects? (Delhi 2009) OR Why did the anti-Muslim riots take place in 2002 in Gujarat ? What were the outcomes of these riots? (All India (C) 2008) Answer: In February-March 2002 large scale violence took place against Muslims in Gujarat because :

Question 1. Describe any three points of consensus that emerged among most political parties in India in spite of severe competition and conflicts. (All India 2015) OR Highlight any three issues on which a broad agreement has emerged among most of the political parties in India. (All India 2013) OR In the midst of severe competition and many conflicts in 1989, a consensus appeared to have emerged among most parties. Explain any three points of consensus. (All India 2012) OR Explain any three elements of consensus which have emerged among most political parties after the Lok Sabha elections of 2004. (All India 2011) OR ‘Inspite of serious differences between major national political parties, emergence of new consensus is being viewed with interest’. In the light of this statement describe any three consensus. (HOTS: Delhi 2010) Answer: Inspite of serious differences between major national political parties emergence of new consensus is being viewed with interest in the light of statement as following : 1. Acceptance of political and social claims of the backward castes Most of the political parties accepted the adequate representation. As a result, all political parties supported reservation for OBCs in education and employment. Political parties even want to ensure that OBCs get their due share of power. 2. Role of state-level parties The role of state-level parties in governance of the country has been recognised. The gap between centre and state level parties decreased. State level parties are sharing power at central level and have become crucial for the survival of country’s politics in the last two decades. 3. Focus on pragmatic consideration Coalition politics has shifted political alignments from ideological differences to power-sharing agreements. Governance is based on pragmatic consideration and political alliances take no rigid ideological positions. Thus, the alliance with BJP was formed called NDA in spite of BJP Hindutva. The NDA government lasted for its full term in office. Question 2. Which three major developments took place in Indian politics during the last decade of the 20th century? Describe. (All India 2015) OR “Towards the end of the 1980s, five major changes took place in Indian political system.” In light of this statement, examine any three changes. (Delhi 2011) Answer: For major development in Indian politics towards the end of 1980s, country saw five major development which are as follows (any four) : 1. End of Congress  system mean dominance of Congress for two decades. But the most important event was the defeat of Congress party in the 1989’s elections. The party had won only 197 seats, which was very low in comparision to 1984 elections where party won 415 seats. The Congress boosted up its performance and finally it came back to power in 1991, after Rajiv Gandhi’s assassination. But the elections of 1989 marked the end of what political scientists have called the ‘Congress system’, congress remained as major party but it lost its dominance as it enjoyed earlier in the party system. 2. Mandal Issue  The Mandal issue started with the National Front government’s decision to implement the recommendations of Mandal Commission in 1990. The recommendation was that 27 per cent of job in the Central Government should be reserved for other backward classes’s candidates only. Thus, it brought widespread dismay and anger. This conflict between supporters and opponents of OBC reservation was popularly called ‘Mandal issue’. It played a crucial role in shaping politics since 1989. 3. New Economic Reforms  The new Ans economic reforms were announced as the structural adjustment programme. These reforms were initiated by Rajiv Gandhi, but these were more visible in Narsimha Rao’s Government in the year 1991. These reforms faced many criticism, but the upcoming governments have continued to follow these. 4. Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi  There was a change in leadership due to assassination of Rajiv Gandhi in May 1991. He was assassinated during his election campaign in Tamil Nadu by a Sri Lankan Tamil linked to the LTTE. The elections of 1991 witnessed Congress party emerging as the single largest party.Though death of Rajiv Gandhi led to the appointment of Narsimha Rao as the Prime Minister. 5. Ayodhya Issue  The Ayodhya issue was started with the demolition of Babri Masjid in December, 1992. This, incident led to violence and many questions were raised about the nature of Indian nationalism and secularsm. This issue exemplified and provoked various changes in the politics of the country and guided the rise of the BJP and the politics of Hindutva. Question 3. Coalition government is a bane or boon for democracy in India’. Explain any three arguments in support of your answer. (Delhi 2011) Answer: Coalition government is a boon because :

Question 4. From 1989 to 2004, there have been nine coalition governments in India. Analyse the rise and fall of any two such coalition governments. (Delhi 2010) OR “The era of coalition in India started in 1989, which has come to stay in a big way.” Do you agree? Substantiate your answer by any three arguments. (HOTS; All India 2010) Answer: The era 1990s witnessed the emergence of strong political parties, regional parties through several issues viz OBC, Dalit etc. These parties formed government through alliances. Such alliance were United Front, National Front in 1996 and 1989 respectively. Coalition from 1989 to 2004 Some parties had Congress support and formed alliance in 1996 called United Front. In 1989, BJP and Left supported National front. In 1989, BJP and Left wanted to keep the Congress out of power, hence, both supported National Front and later in 1996, Congress wanted to keepout BJP from the power. Therefore, it supported United front and Left supported Congress in 1996. The alliance government did not succeed for long because BJP continued to strengthen its position in the elections of 1991 and 1996. The BJP was the single largest party in 1996 parliamentary election. In 1996, BJP was invited to form the government, but most of the political parties opposed its policies consequently it could not secure a majority in the Lok Sabha. Lok Sabha Elections, 2004 In 2004 elections, the Congress party came to power with the new alliance known as United Progressive Alliance.This was a coalition in a big way. NDA was defeated and installation of another coalition led by DR. Manmohan Singh occurred. The UPA received support from DMK, PMK, AIADMK, RJD, NCP, TRS and left from Andhra Pradesh etc. The 2004 elections also saw the partial revival of Congress party as it increased its seats compared to 1996 elections. However, there was a little bit difference between the votes polled by the Congress and its allies and the BJP and its allies in 2004 elections. Thus, the party system has taken another form suddenly from what it was till the seventies. After the 1990s, the political process has been changed and it led to emergence of broadly four groups of parties:

Question 5. “The end of Eighties of the 20th century witnessed developments which made a long lasting impact on Indian parities”. Assess any three such developments, (HOTS; Delhi 2010) Answer: The end of eighties of the 20th century witnessed major development which have lasting impact on Indian politics, are as follows: (i) End of Congress system mean dominance of Congress for two decades. But the most important event was the defeat of Congress party in the 1989’s elections. The party had won only 197 seats, which was very low in comparison to 1984 elections where party won 415 seats. Congress boosted up its performance and finally it came back to power in 1991, after Rajiv Gandhi’s assassination. But the elections of 1989 marked the end of what political scientists have called the ‘Congress system’. Congress remained as major party but it lost its dominance as it enjoyed earlier in the party system. (ii) Mandal issue The Mandal issue started with the National Front Government’s decision to implement the recommendations of Mandal Commission in 1990. The recommendation was that 27 per cent of job in the Central Government should be reserved for other backward classes’s candidates only. Thus, it brought widespread agitation and anger. This conflict between supporters and opponents of OBC reservation was popularly called ‘Mandal issue’. It played a crucial role in shaping politics since 1989. (iii) New economic reforms The new economic reforms were announced as the structural adjustment programme. These reforms were initiated by Rajiv Gandhi, but these were more visible in Narismha Rao’s Government in the year 1991. These reforms faced many criticism, but the upcoming governments have continued to follow these reforms. Question 6. Describe the emergence of the coalition government in India. (All India 2009) OR “After the election in 1989, an era of coalition started in which political parties are not aligning or re-aligning on the basis of ideologies”. Explain. (HOTS; All India 2008) Answer: Undoubtly, in the new era of coalition politics, political parties are not aligning or re-aligning on the basis of ideology. The main basis of their aligning with one or the other party is to safeguard their own interest and to frustrate their opponents. The best example was of Dr Manmohan Singh’s government where the leftists supported the UPA but in state both are opponents. The main interest was to keep out BJP from government. Same condition occurred in Bihar, when BJP and Janata Dal formed government to keep out RJD. At the centre, UPA and NDA generally do these things and hence, it could be said that political parties are not aligning or realigning on the basis of ideology. For features of coalition government on the basis of ideologies Three features of coalition government has been given in which we have to understand the not aligning and re-aligning on the basis of ideologies. These are :

Question 7. A two-party system is considered as the best form for a democratic system. India, on the other hand, has a multi-party system. Assess the advantages of the multi-party system in India. (All India to 2008) Answer: Two party systems is required for successful democracy. However, the multi-party system have the following advantages:

Question 8. “The regional parties have started playing an important role in the Indian politics”. Comment. (HOTS: Delhi (C) 2008) Answer: India as democracy has the multi-party system which means there are several political parties competing for power. Apart from the primary parties, each state has their own local political parties that rule and compete in their region. Regional parties play following roles in Indian politics :

Question 1. Study the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: In fact, the BSP under Kanshi Ram’s leadership was envisaged as an organisation based on pragmatic politics. It derived confidence from the fact that the Bahujans (SCs, STs OBCs and religious minorities) constituted the majority of the population and were a formidable political force on the strength of their numbers. (Delhi 2013) (i) Which organisation was formed by Kanshi Ram? (ii) Give the full form of BSP. (iii) Name any two religious minorities. (iv) Why are the Bahujans considered a formidable political force? Answer: (i) BSP was formed by Kanshi RAM (ii) Bahujan Samaj Party (iii) Religious minorities – Muslim and Sikh (iv) These communities (SCs, STs, OBCs) form the majority of the population and were a formidable political force on the strength of their number.

Picture Based Questions Question 1. Study the cartoon given below and answer the following questions (i) Who was head of the Government formed by the National Front in 1989? (ii) Why was the government formed by him called a puppet government? (iii) Identify the puppeteers pulling the strings and the political parties they belong to. (All India 2016) Answer: (i) VP Singh was the head of the government formed by the National Front in 1989. (ii) (a) Because, the strings of this government were in the hands of other leaders. (b) They were moving and controlling the government like a puppet by pulling the strings. (iii) (a) The puppeteers pulling the strings were Jyoti Basu and LK Advani. (b) Jyoti Basu (CPM) and LK Advani (BJP). Question 2. Study the cartoon given below and answer the following questions (i) Identify any four national leaders from the above cartoon and mention the serial number of each. (ii) Which was the most controversial issue of the period related to leader No.2 as Prime Minister of India? (iii) What was the position of the party led by leader No. 1 in the Lok Sabha elections of 1989? (Delhi 2016) Answer: (i) VP Singh, LK Advani, Chandrashekhar and Devi Lai. (ii) V P Singh (iii) The party led by leader No-1 get only 197 seats in the Lok Sabha election of 1989. Question 3. Study the cartoon given below and answer the following questions (i) Why is the girl shown in the cartoon not worried about whether it is a single party or a coalition government? (ii) Does a coalition government involve more compromises and why? (iii) Do you think we can have bold and imaginative policies in a coalition government and why? (All India 2010) Answer: (i) She is not worried about whether it is a single party or a coalition government rather she is worried about the work the parties do for the progress of the country. (ii) Yes, coalition government involves more compromises because different ideologies come together in a coalition. (iii) Yes, to make a coalition stronger we can have bold and imaginative policies in a coalition government. Question 4. The National Front Government led by VP Singh was supported by the Left (represented here by Joyti Basu) as well as the BJP (represented by LK Advani) Delhi 2009 Look at the cartoon given above carefully and answer the following questions (i) Does the cartoon refer to a puppet government? (ii) Describe the role of such a government in the Indian democratic setup. (iii) What is meant by ‘Support the Government from outside’? Answer: (i) Yes, the cartoon refers to a puppet government. (ii) The role of a puppet government in the Indian democratic set-up can be

(iii) Support from outside means to support the functioning and process of the government without joining or becoming a part of the government.

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