Important Questions Class 12 Geography Fundamentals Human Geography Chapter 4 Human Development
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SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Q.1 On what behalf the medium Index Value countries have been rapidly improving their human development scores? Ans. By adopting more people oriented policies and reducing social investment. Most of these countries have a much higher social diversity than the countries with higher human development scores. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Q.1 Give reasons for declining child sex ratio in India? Ans. In India, the female sex ratio is declining. The child sex ratio between 0-6 age group is declining. The rate is below 800 female’s children per 1000 male children. For this social attitude is responsible. For this scientific method of sex determination are also important males dominate Indian society therefore the health and education is ignored. Q.2 Which factors have caused spatial variations in the levels of human development among major states in India? Ans. India ranks 126 among 172 countries as regard H.D.I. on its value India is placed among the moderate group. In Kerala (0.63%) ranks first in India. In other states value of H.D.I. is as follows: – Punjab (0.527), Tamil Nadu (0.531), Maharashtra (0.523) etc. Many social economic and political factors are responsible for these variations: – 1. The literacy rate is high in states with high value of HDI in states of central India like Bihar, M.P., Orissa, the HDI value is low due to low literacy rate. 2. In Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana value of HDI is high due to economic development. In Assam, Bihar etc. states, HDI value is low due to low economic development. Q.3 What is human development? What are its indicators? Ans. Human development is a process of widening people’s choices as well as raising the level of wellbeing. Main indicators: – long and healthy life, education and decent standard of living additional indicators include political freedom, guaranteed human rights, self-reliance and self-esteem. Q.4 Study the world map showing Human development index (HDI) in the world countries and answer the question which follows. World: Human Development Index
1. Name the two European and two Asian countries having high and medium Human Development Index respectively. 2. Mention the main causes of downward change in human development in the world countries. 3. Mention the main causes of upward change in human development in the world countries. Ans. 1. High HDI – Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark etc. Medium HDI – India, China, Korea, Brazil etc. 2. Down ward Change – 1. Decrease in life expectancy due to spread of diseases like AIDS/HIV. 2. Suffering from famine like conditions caused by prolong droughts. 3. Static economic growth 4. War and lawlessness 3. Upward Change: – 1. Health program & nutritious food supply. 2. Industrialization and service sector has increased income. 3. Peace, health and welfare program.
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