What is Tissue Culture?
What is Tissue Culture? Tissue culture is a method under which fragments of plants and animal tissues are cultured and grown in a laboratory. The organs, many times, are used for tissue culture. Broth and agar are the media used for the growth of the culture. This method is also known as micropropagation. a sterile workplace, a greenhouse, trained manpower, and a nursery are all it requires. It is beneficial for the production of disease-free plants and plants in developing countries. In developing countries, oil palm, banana, plantain, eggplant, pineapple, rubber tree, tomato, sweet potato have been produced by tissue culture. Following are the main categories of cultures:-
Types of Tissue Culture. Listed below are some type of tissue culture techniques:-
Animal Cell Culture Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown in a controlled artificial environment. The cells are taken from the organ of an experimental animal, for animal cell culture.The cells may be removed directly or by mechanical or enzymatic action. Fibroblasts, lymphocytes, cells from cardiac and skeletal tissues, cells from the liver, breast, skin, and kidney and different types of tumor cells, are some examples of the cells used in the culture. Steps of Tissue Culture Following are the steps of tissue culture:- Initiation Phase:- This is a stage when the tissue is initiated into the culture. To prevent the process from any contamination the tissue of interest is obtained, introduced, and sterilized. Multiplication Phase:- In the multiplication stage, The sterilized ex-plant is introduced into the medium which consists of growth regulators and appropriate nutrients, they are responsible for the multiplication of cells. Hence this undifferentiated mass of cells is known as a callus. Root Formation:- This is the stage when the root starts forming. To initiate the formation of root plant growth hormones are added. Consequently, complete plantlets are obtained. Shoot Formation:- For the formation of the shoot, plant growth hormones are added and growth is observed for a week. Acclimatization:- When the plant starts to develop, the plant is transferred to a greenhouse for it to develop under controlled environmental conditions. Thereafter it is finally transferred to the nurseries for its growth under natural environmental conditions.
Tissue culture is one of the most important cultures in biology, because of its wide range of applications:-
An explant can be defined as that part of the plant which holds the potential and is effectively capable of giving rise to a whole new plant. Explants can be of various types used in the process of regeneration such as apical meristems, roots, cotyledons, nodal segments, leaf discs, pedicle, petiole, anther, ovary, embryo, etc. A mother plant can be defined as the source of explants which is to be used for further multiplication. The mother plant should be completely devoid of any bacterial/fungal infection before any multiplication happens. To create a clone, the grower cuts a branch from the mother plant and places it in a substrate, where it develops roots of its own, which can be used repeatedly.
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