Vaccine helps to stimulate the immune system and identify the foreign bodies to destroy it.
The process of administering a vaccine to protect the immune system from diseases is termed as vaccination. The main function of vaccines is to provide protection by recognizing the pathogens like viruses or bacteria and fight the pathogens. The life-threatening diseases include measles, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, meningitis, influenza, tetanus, typhoid, and cervical cancer. Vaccine is the material which is used for immunization Vaccine is prepared from microbes which are weak or dead and it has similar items of a microorganism which causes the disease by using one of its surface proteins or its toxins. Vaccine helps to stimulate the immune system and identify the foreign bodies to destroy it. The first vaccine to discover was the Smallpox vaccine.
Vaccination is required and vaccines are recommended for infants, children, teenagers, and adults. There are proper schedules made for vaccination according to the age. Vaccines are especially important for young children and older adults as they are at-risk populations. This plays a major role in decreasing the rate of mortality during the break of any pandemic disease or infection.
Vaccination protects children from serious illness and complications of vaccine-preventable diseases like amputation of an arm or leg, paralysis of limbs, hearing loss, convulsions, brain damage, and death. Vaccination should be given to children as they have a high chance of spreading it to other children who are too young to resist any infections as they have developing immune systems. Vaccinations start from an early age which are called booster doses that are given within a year to prevent from any unwanted diseases which affect the growth and body functioning of the new borns.
The process in which a person is made immune or resistant towards an infectious disease which is done by introducing a vaccine into the body. This prepares the body to fight for any foreign bodies which have invaded the body. Immunization plays an important role in controlling and eliminating life-threatening infectious diseases. This plays an important role in eradicating a disease as it is proven to be the most cost-effective health investments and is accessible to the most remote areas.
The different kinds of immunization are:
Immunization is important even for adults as vaccination depends on factors such as age, health conditions, travel plans and personal vaccination record. Adults can be vaccinated for a range of diseases like swine flu, typhoid, hepatitis, tetanus, and pneumonia. People over 50 years are more susceptible to infections and hence they require vaccinations.
It is a good practice to take vaccination while travelling to certain countries. If a country has a disease or illness prevalent and if there are few conditions which match with the place of living, it is a good idea to get vaccinated before travelling to that place.
There is no perfect medication to treat any disease, but vaccines are proven to develop and safeguard the immunity for about 90-100% of cases. There are certain procedures which are performed for allowing it to clinical trials. Once it is finished, the vaccine should be approved by FDA for a safe intended use. As the vaccines are prepared with utmost precision, the ratio of lives being saved is high.
There are various types of vaccines:
These are produced by altering a disease-producing virus or bacteria in a laboratory. This altered vaccine organism replicates itself and provides immunity to the organism on which it is applied.
These contain either the whole bacteria or virus or fractions of both. The vaccines are either protein-based or polysaccharide-based. The protein-based consists of toxoids and subunit or subvirion products. The polysaccharide-based vaccines are composed of pure cell wall polysaccharide from bacteria.
These are a unique type of inactivated subunit vaccine which has long chains of sugar molecules that make up the surface capsule of certain bacteria. These vaccines are available in pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Salmonella Typhi.
The vaccine antigens which are produced by genetic engineering technology are termed as recombinant vaccines.
Vaccines are prepared to provide an additional strength to immunity for fighting any foreign bodies entering the body that cause diseases. Some of these vaccines cause a temporary headache, fatigue, or loss of appetite. In a few cases, children might experience a severe allergic reaction or a neurological side effect like seizure. Side effect which leads to death by vaccine is very low.
The vaccines are classified generally as live or inactivated. These contain antigen which has the weakened or killed form of the disease-causing organism or fragments of the organism. The body responds according to the shapes of these antigens, and those are very specific.