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Urine has a light-yellowish colour thanks to the presence of a pigment called urochrome.

Among the multitude of volatile and non-volatile waste substances produced in human and animal bodies, urine is by far the most significant by-product. Produced and excreted by means of the kidney and urethra, urine is the primary form of excreting water-soluble wastes from our bodies. Urine has a light-yellowish colour thanks to the presence of a pigment called urochrome. It has a pH level which varies between 4.6-8 and is a complex aqueous solution of inorganic and organic matter. Besides, normal urine constituents such as urea, oxalic acid and lactic acid, sugar and blood may also be detected in case of an abnormal condition. Thus two general tests are performed to detect the presence of glucose in urine, which may be an indication of diabetes mellitus. A urine sugar test helps detect levels of glucose that exceed the usual levels of 160-180 mg/dl. In the event of such an anomaly, the patient is diagnosed with a condition called glucosuria. 

To perform a test to detect the presence or absence of sugar/glucose in a sample of urine.

The following are the important properties of urine:

The urine glucose test performed to detect sugar presence in urine can be done using the following two methods.

Benedict’s test employs Benedict’s solution as a reagent. It is a mixture of sodium citrate, copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO 4 .5H 2 O) and sodium carbonate. On the other hand, Fehling’s test employs two reagents. These are:

When a sample of urine is boiled with these reagents, the glucose present in the sample reduces the copper sulphate in Fehling’s solution and Benedict’s solution. This changes the colour of the solution. Depending on the levels of glucose in the solution, the colours vary from brick-red, green to yellow precipitates.

Gradually, as the sample is heated, a yellow precipitate starts to form in the test tube. This indicates the presence of sugar or glucose in the given sample.

The formation of a green precipitate indicates the presence of sugar in the sample of urine. Based on the concentration of glucose in the sample, the urine sugar test will yield different colours every time.    

Ans. Benedict’s solution is the reagent which is used to detect sugar in urine. 2.What Can Be Used to Detect Abnormal Levels of Sugar in Urine? What is this Condition Called? Ans. Benedict’s solution can be used to detect abnormal levels of glucose in the urine, in turn also assessing its concentration in our blood. The condition is called glucosuria.

Ans. High levels of glucose in the blood, called glucosuria, is an indicator of diabetes mellitus. If unchecked, it can be detrimental to an individual’s health.