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They cause different problems and they have different treatments.

Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus Although they share the same first name and some of the symptoms diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus are completely different diseases. They cause different problems and they have different treatments. In this topic, we will explain a bit about both of the diseases and then move on to what the primary differences between them are.

Diabetes mellitus is general diabetes that most of the population suffer from. It involves several conditions on how your body turns food into energy. When you eat carbohydrates, your body turns the food into a sugar called glucose and the hormone insulin regulates the flow of glucose in your bloodstream. If there is a low level of insulin secretion in your body, then your blood glucose levels will increase which leads to a condition called high blood sugar. It can cause serious health problems and if not controlled can be life-threatening. It comes in different forms

Diabetes insipidus is a condition where your kidney produces abnormally large volumes of dilute and odourless urine. The kidneys of an affected patient can pass up to 20 litres of urine. As a result, the patient would have to drink large amounts of fluid. There are four types of diabetes insipidus:

The general symptoms of diabetes insipidus are:

The treatments for diabetes mellitus include hormonal therapy, medication to balance mineral levels in the body and living a healthy life.

Each disease has its own set of specific characteristics. The following table lists those differences.

There are several ways diabetes mellitus can be diagnoses

A man-made hormone called desmopressin is used to treat diabetes insipidus. It replaces the missing ADH hormone and decreases urination.  The hormone works by increasing water permeability in renal tubular cells and decreases urine volume and increases urine concentration.

The three major signs of diabetes mellitus are:

These are also known as the three P’s and they often but not always occur together.

A common test is ‘water deprivation. It takes several hours and the patient is not allowed to drink any fluid on the day of the test. Initial blood and urine tests are carried out to measure the salt levels and the concentration in both. At hourly intervals, the tests are repeated along with checking blood pressure, weight and the amount of urine passed. If the blood sodium or concentration levels rise above the normal range along with low urine concentration, then it is likely that the patient has been diagnosed with diabetes insipidus.

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It is caused due to defects in the brain’s hypothalamus.

It is caused due to defects in the pancreas.

Another reason is the deficiency of ADH.

The major reason is the deficiency of the insulin hormone.

Blood glucose levels do not increase and there is no presence of glucose in urine.

Blood glucose levels increase and it is present in urine.

The urine is diluted and odourless.

There is no change in the concentration of urine.

The disorder causes excessive urination.

Urination is lesser than diabetes insipidus.

There is no increase in blood cholesterol.

There are no changes in eating patterns.

Excessive hunger is seen in patients.

Ketone bodies are not present in the urine

Ketone bodies are present in urine.

The incidence rate is 3 in 100,000.

The incidence rate is 770 in 100,000

The symptoms include excessive urination and thirst with headaches.

The symptoms are high blood sugar, increased thirst and hunger etc.