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These topics are elementary and form the basis of much more advanced concepts in higher classes.

Following are a list of biology topics that have been carefully selected according to their scope and importance. These topics are elementary and form the basis of much more advanced concepts in higher classes. Moreover, questions frequently arise from these topics in various competitive exams. Hence, students will find this list most beneficial for their exam preparations. 1. Photosynthesis Photosynthesis an important process that is observed in plants and certain microscopic organisms. Furthermore, all life on earth is directly or indirectly dependent on this process. It is even speculated that the evolution of life on earth was significantly influenced by photosynthesis. Complete Article:   Photosynthesis 2. Carbon Cycle The carbon cycle is a biogeochemical process that also has a significant impact on life. The cycle essentially explains how carbon is incorporated and exchanged among the various entities (such as living organisms, atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere etc). Complete Article:   Carbon Cycle 3. Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen is an important element required for life. However, neither plants nor animals can extract nitrogen directly from the atmosphere, instead, they rely on a series of biological and/or physical processes to incorporate into their systems. These set of processes contribute to the nitrogen cycle. Complete Article:   Nitrogen Cycle 4. Difference Between Mitosis And Meiosis Mitosis and meiosis are two types of cell divisions that are observed in living organisms. One of the major differences between the two is that mitosis occurs during growth and maintenance while meiosis occurs only during sexual reproduction. Complete Article:   Difference Between Mitosis And Meiosis 5. Flora And Fauna Flora refers to all plant life while fauna refers to all animal life. There are over 8.7 million species of living organisms identified to date and more being discovered every day. Life is so abundant that every nook and corner of the planet is teeming with life. Complete Article:   Flora And Fauna 6. Human Digestive System Digestion is an important life process and is observed in a multitude of life forms. Some have a rather simple system while others are much more complicated. Unsurprisingly, humans have a digestive system too, and it is much more advanced with a host of organs and glands that perform very specific functions and roles. Complete Article:    Human Digestive System 7. Human Heart The heart is an important organ usually found in most higher animals. Even invertebrates have a heart that pumps blood into their cavities. However, unlike the invertebrates, the human heart is quite advanced with respect to its structure, functions and capabilities. Complete Article:   Human Heart 8. Sense Organs To interpret the world around us, we have various senses and sense organs. These sense organs provide information which helps to make decisions and perceive the environment and associated stimuli. Complete Article:   Sense Organs 9. Cells The cell is the most basic, structural and functional unit of life. A cell can be classified based on various criteria (such as plant and animal cell, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, types of cells present in human tissues or plant tissues etc. Complete Article:   Cells 10. Human Brain The brain is one of the most important organs which control nearly every aspect of our body. It is also one of the most complex organs in the entire body, with billions of neurons that relay information between the brain and the body. Complete Article:   Human Brain 11. Blood Also called the fluid connective tissue, blood (and lymph) carries oxygen, essential minerals and nutrients to the cells. It also collects the metabolic waste products to be eliminated from the body. Humans are not the only organisms with blood, earthworms, spiders and even leeches have blood. Complete Article:   Blood and its Components 12. Soil Profile The dirt beneath your feet is made up of several distinct layers, each with its own physical and chemical properties. Soil also varies from place to place due to their parent material (the original layer of rock where the formation of soil takes places.) Complete Article:   Soil Profile 13. Transpiration Transpiration is the process where water vapour is let out through the stomata on the leaves. It is a very crucial process that performs two major roles – pumping minerals and water to the leaves for photosynthesis and removing excess heat from the plants. Complete Article:   Transpiration 14. Gymnosperms Gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that have been around far longer than the angiosperms. The plant’s Greek-origin name translates to “naked seeds” as they the seeds are not enclosed in any way (unlike the angiosperms). Complete Article:   Gymnosperms 15. Saprophytes Saprophytes are organisms that consume dead or decaying organic matter. Certain species of plants, bacteria and fungi follow this form of nutrition. However, fungi, in particular, are well-known saprophytes as they are the principal decomposers in an ecosystem. Complete Article:   Saprophytes 16. Biofertilizers Biofertilizer is a fertilizer that contains living or latent microbes. These forms of fertilizers help to promote plant growth by increasing the number of essential nutrients available to the plants. Traditionally used biofertilizers include Rhizobium, blue-green algae and Azospirillum. Complete Article:   Biofertilizers 17. Rhizobium Rhizobium is an important soil bacteria that helps to convert the atmospheric nitrogen into fixed nitrogen, which is then usable by plants. It does this once it finds a base inside root nodules of plants such as legumes. Complete Article:   Rhizobium 18. Ecology Ecology is the branch of biology that deals with the relationships that exist between organisms and their surroundings. Complete Article:   Ecology 19. Adaptation And Habitats Life on earth resides in very diverse environments with many factors and variables (such as temperature, humidity, altitude etc). To ensure their best chances of survival, life develops various adaptations to cope up with the environment and with other life forms. One of the best examples of adaptations is camouflage, where predators and prey blend into their environment for   predation   or to avoid predation. Complete Article:   Adaptation And Habitats 20. Evolution Throughout the earth’s 4.54 billion years of history, countless organisms have come and gone. The very first undisputed signs of life appeared roughly 3.5 billion years ago, though there is divisive evidence that it emerged as early as 4.2 billion years. But the question of “How life came to be” still remains unanswered. Complete Article:   Evolution 21. Plant Cell Plant cells are vastly different from animal cells, though both are eukaryotic in nature. Moreover, plant cells do not have certain organelles like lysosomes or centrioles. However, they possess various other cell organelles that facilitate the process of photosynthesis such as chloroplasts. Complete Article:   Plant Cell 22. Animal Cell Animal cells are quite similar to plant cells. However, one of the major differentiating factors is the absence of a cell wall. Other organelles like chloroplasts are absent as well. Complete Article:   Animal Cell 23. Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells One of the ways cells are classified is based on the presence or absence of a nucleus and nuclear membrane. Prokaryotic cells lack the aforementioned while eukaryotic cells do. Complete Article:   Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 24. Heredity Also known as biological inheritance, it is the set of processes where traits from parents are passed on to their offsprings either through sexual or asexual reproduction. Complete Article:   Heredity 25. Biomolecules A biomolecule is a term used to describe the molecules that are found in organisms and it takes part in important biological processes and cellular activities. Examples include proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids etc. Complete Article:   Biomolecules   Important Links: Biology MCQs Biology Important Questions – Class 11 & 12

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