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These are the most primitive needs of an individual which have to be met continuously.

Abraham Maslow in his paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” published in the year 1943 had put forth a series of human needs that are positioned in a pyramid hierarchy, and have to be met accordingly. The identified needs are – physiological needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, esteem needs and self-actualisation needs. (image will be uploaded soon)

These are the most primitive needs of an individual which have to be met continuously. Examples – air, sleep, water, food, shelter.

It ranks above basic physiological needs and ensures the survival of an individual. Examples – physical security, employment security.

It is the starting point of interpersonal relationships and transcends basic material needs. Examples – family relationship, friendship, intimate partner relationship.

Esteem needs indicate individuals require validation for their competence, at some levels. It imparts the sense of being worthy of respect. Examples – attention, status, prestige.

Self-actualisation means meeting one’s potential and harnessing the ability to reach such potential. This is the highest need to be met after fulfilling the other needs down the pyramid rung. Example – pursuing goals leading to personal fulfilment. These identified needs may be grouped into growth or being needs and deficit needs. The growth needs primarily include self-actualisation, which includes the desire to gain something intangible for self-accomplishment. The rest fall under deficit needs as the deprivation of these has to be met necessarily.

Maslow’s 7 hierarchy of needs has found much greater application in organisation and business settings. The goods and services which were previously offered by businesses are also undergoing significant changes.  Moving from physical and tangible goods, these offer intangible things like connectivity and information. Maslow’s hierarchy model is particularly vital in bringing in newer changes in the financial markets. 

The hierarchy of needs was propounded by Maslow in the domain of psychology. However, the theory has found application in various domains, and as such gaining greater importance with every passing day in business settings. For a theory which was put forward in 1943, its significance has not diminished in the twenty-first century at all. In both individual and organisational context, the identification and fulfilment of these inherent needs provide the scope for self-improvement, personal development and growth.

(a) Esteem needs (b) Belonging needs (c) Self-actualisation needs (d) Safety needs

(a) Safety needs (b) Physiological needs (c) Esteem needs (d) Belonging needs Solutions: i. (c) Self-actualisation needs, ii. (d) Belonging needs    

Ans. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs explained the necessity of fulfilling a five-tier model of human needs which comprise safety needs, physiological needs, belonging needs, self-actualisation needs and esteem needs.

Ans. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory is a motivational theory in psychology that identifies specific needs of individuals which have to be met based on the pyramid of hierarchy. Needs at the bottom rung have to be met first.

Ans. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs from bottom to top is – physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs and self-actualisation.

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