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Therefore, it is beneficial to kill or inhibit their growth to minimize their harmful effects.

The process of killing or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms is called Disinfection and Sterilization. Microbes can cause ample diseases in humans and animals can also affect their health by spoiling the food. Therefore, it is beneficial to kill or inhibit their growth to minimize their harmful effects. This is achieved by sterilization or disinfection. However, the way the two processes are conducted is quite different.

A physical process that is followed to completely destroy all the forms of microorganisms present on any surface is called Sterilization. This process is followed mainly to preserve the substance for a longer time without decay. It is usually done by physical agents such as heat, radiation, filtration, etc.

A process used to eliminate or inhibit the growth of bacteria and other pathogens causing infectious diseases in both humans and animals is called Disinfection. The chemicals used for this process are mainly chlorine, iodine, alcohol etc.

Some common factors between Disinfection and sterilization are –

Some of the methods used in disinfection and sterilization are –

The activities that are performed by the germicides against the microorganisms depends on a number of factors. Awareness of these factors will help us to be beware of the germs. The factors affecting the efficacy of disinfection and sterilization are –

The main takeaway here is that the aim of disinfection and sterilization are different. The main aim of a disinfectant is to kill or inactivate the harmful microorganisms. Sterilization, on the other hand, aims at killing all the microbes.

Q1. What are the Two Methods Used for Killing Microbes?  Ans – The process of killing or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms is called Disinfection and Sterilization. Q2. What is Sterilization?  Ans – A physical process that is followed to completely destroy all the forms of microorganisms present on any surface is called Sterilization. This process is followed mainly to preserve the substance for a longer time without decay. It is usually done by physical agents such as heat, radiation, filtration, etc. Q3. What is Disinfection?  Ans – A process used to eliminate or inhibit the growth of bacteria and other pathogens causing infectious diseases in both humans and animals is called Disinfection. The chemicals used for this process are mainly chlorine, iodine, alcohol etc. Q4. What Common Features Does Disinfection and Sterilization Share? Ans – Some common factors between Disinfection and sterilization are –

Q5. What are the Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Disinfection and Sterilization?  Ans – The factors affecting the efficacy of disinfection and sterilization are –

Q6. What are the Methods Used in Disinfection and Sterilization?  Ans – Some of the methods used in disinfection and sterilization are –

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Here, the number of harmful microbes is minimized to a minimal level.

Here, the surface is made completely germ free

In this only vegetative cells are killed, not the spores

It kills both vegetative cells and spores

Here, chemical methods are used for disinfection

Here, physical methods are used for sterilization

It only reduces the effect of microbes

Only required cleaning is done here

Phenol, alcohol, chlorine, iodine are some of the disinfecting agents.

Some of the sterilization methods are dry heat, filtration etc.