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The term ploidy defines the number of sets of chromosomes found in the nucleus of a cell.

The term ploidy defines the number of sets of chromosomes found in the nucleus of a cell. Different animals and plants have a different number of chromosomes. Two types of eukaryotic cells are haploid and diploid cells, the major difference is the number of chromosome sets found in the nucleus. Humans are diploid, i.e. they carry two complete sets of chromosomes, one set is of 23 chromosomes from father and the other set is of 23 chromosomes from mother. The two sets combine to provide a full complement of 46 chromosomes. This sum of chromosomes is termed as the chromosome number.

They are the cells that have only one set of chromosomes in them. The most familiar type of haploid cells is germ cells or sex cells. They are produced due to meiosis. They are used in sexual reproduction. When haploid cells from the parents come together and are fertilized, the offspring has a complete set of chromosomes and they become diploid. In us, haploid cells have 23 chromosomes, and 46 in the diploid cells. Haploid cells have one complete set of chromosomes, whereas monoploid refers to a number of unique chromosomes present in a cell. Though haploid cells of humans and other organisms are in the gamete cells, some organisms, like algae, undergo a phase in the life cycle where their cells are haploid, and Additionally, some animals, like male ants, actually live as haploid animals throughout their life cycle.

They are those cells that have two sets of chromosomes. In diploid animals, each parent donates one set of chromosomes that make up the two sets of the offspring. Most of the mammals are diploid animals, meaning they will have two homologous copies of each chromosome in them. In us, there are 46 chromosomes. In most diploid animals, every cell except for the gametes will be diploid. Diploid cells divide using mitosis, which makes a completely identical copy. In humans, somatic cells are diploid cells. They include cells that make up the organs, muscles, bones, skin, hair, etc Other than eggs or sperm cells.

The major difference between haploid and diploid cells is the number of chromosomes found in the nucleus of a cell. Ploidy in biology refers to the number of chromosomes in a cell. Hence, cells having two sets are diploid, and those having one set are haploid. In diploid animals, like humans, haploid cells are used exclusively for sex cells for reproduction, while, rest of the cells are diploid in nature. Another major difference between haploid and diploid cells is how they reproduce. Haploid cells reproduce by meiosis, while diploid cells undergo mitosis. Most of the mammals are diploid animals, and somatic cells will typically be diploid, while their gamete cells are haploid.

They hold an organism’s DNA and protein in the cells. The DNA has genetic information of a person and proteins that help to control the DNA’s functions. A homologous chromosome is a pair of the centromere positions, same length, and patterns that code for same traits. DNA is the fundamental basis of life. It includes coding for everything, from the looks of an organism (phenotype) to whether it is prone to certain diseases. How the genetic information is passed on is very important, whether in cellular reproduction for the formation of new cells or in sexual reproduction for giving rise to an offspring. If there is any malfunction in producing the copies of chromosomes, there can be problems, like cancer or birth defects. During sexual reproduction of diploid animals, each parent donates one set of chromosomes, passing on certain genetic characters. Many factors affect whether a certain gene can be expressed or not. Few genes will only be expressed in certain conditions, like stress causing certain disease-fighting genes to be expressed. Other genes, like physical traits, are expressed based upon which allele is dominant and which is recessive. Since coding the human genome, scientists have learned more about human health and prevention and treatment of diseases.

Cells undergo a life cycle that includes birth, reproduction, and death. The life cycle is important in the maintenance of the organism’s health, cause if a cell does not reproduce correctly, it can cause problems. The major two sections of the life cycle of a cell are interphase and mitosis or meiosis, depending on the type and nature of the cell. In interphase, the cells undergo G1, S and G2 phases. During G1 phase, cells ensure that environmental conditions are favorable for replication of genome to occur. If they are not, then the cells go into the resting phase or G0 phase. If they are, then they go through S phase, where the DNA is replicated in preparation for cell replication. Then, cells undergo the G2 phase to ensure the DNA replication was done correctly. If it was not, then it will correct any problems. After this, the cell enters into the replication phase. In diploid cells, this phase is called mitosis, which creates two completely identical copies of the parent cell. In haploid cells, this phase is called meiosis, which creates four genetically unique haploid cells. It is important that the cells monitor the reproduction rate; or else, it can damage the DNA replication process. This leads to cells malfunctioning, which can cause diseases like cancer. Cancer is mainly caused by a problem in the DNA of a cell that causes too many cells to be reproduced. This is due to a problem during the cell cycle S phase, or due to an environmental factor harming the DNA.

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