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The primary objectives of food processing are as follows-

Food processing can be defined as the process of transformation of agricultural products into food or conversion of food from one form to other forms.  Various processes of food processing may include the processing of raw materials into food through various chemical and physical processes. Different activities involved in this process include cooking, mincing, liquefaction, canning, pickling, emulsification, and maceration. Clean, harvested crops or butchered and slaughtered animal products are taken to produce attractive, marketable, and life-long food products with a higher shelf life. However, various processes of food processing may also defer the nutritional value of the food and the processed food might even pose a health hazard if it’s laced with harmful additives, preservatives, colorings, etc.

The primary objectives of food processing are as follows-

Food processing turns raw, or indigestible food into well-cooked and preserved eatables. Various methods applied for food processing are as follows-

Food preservation is the most important process in Food Processing which is meant to prevent the spoilage of food by the growth of fungi, bacteria, and many other microorganisms. It involves slowing down the oxidation of fats that would lead to rancidity. There are several methods of food preservation some of which are listed below

It is one of the oldest techniques that are employed to preserve or process food products. It is naturally done by exposing the food particles to sunlight to dry them. Drying results in the evaporation of moisture or water content from food which in turn prevents the invasion and growth of microorganisms in food. Drying can also be done by using hot air. It is done mainly for food grains like wheat, maize, oats, barley, rice, before storing them.

Cooling or freezing is done both on commercial as well as on a domestic basis. This process preserves food by slowing down the growth of microorganisms and the action of enzymes released by microbes leading to the rotting of food. Food products like meat, dairy products, and fish are stored in a refrigerator or commercially in big cold storage keeping them frozen, thus increasing the shelf-life of the products.

Foods such as meat and fish are processed, preserved, and flavored by the use of smoke. This is done in big smokehouses. The food processing and the combination of smoke with the aroma of hydrocarbons generated from the smoke processes enhance the taste of the food. Also, microorganisms and spores are destroyed by the process of smoking due to heat.

It is a widely used preservation technique used by industries to preserve milk. Milk is heated and immediately cooled in this process in large containers to expose the microbes to sudden heat and cold, destroying them with extreme temperature fluctuations.

Salt dries up food by sucking the moisture content. This process is widely used to preserve meat. Meat is frequently treated with nitrate to prevent them from spoiling. Sugaring is a process used to preserve fruits. Many fruits such as apples, peaches, and plums are cooked with sugar till they are crystallized. This is then stored dry.

It is a process of preserving food in an antimicrobial liquid that is fit for human and animal consumption. Pickling can be categorized into two types- fermentation and thermal pickling. In fermentation pickling, bacteria present in a liquid produces organic preservation agents that prevent food spoilage for a longer time. In chemical pickling, the food is preserved in an edible liquid which is mostly brine, vinegar, ethanol, vegetable oil, and many other types of oils that destroy microbes.

The benefits of food processing are as follows-

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