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The plant has a hidden system of reproduction and as a result they are included into Cryptogamae.

Thallophyte, also known as thallobionta or thallophyta, are basically non – mobile organisms of polyphyletic group that are conventionally called as “lower plants” or “relatively small plants” or “thalloid plants”. The plant has a hidden system of reproduction and as a result they are included into Cryptogamae. But as opposite to the cormophytes, the thallophyte has undifferentiated bodies with stems and roots. In the marine ecosystem, different kinds of or groups of thallophytes contribute in a large extent to its entire sphere and dynamism. The most popular definition of thellaphyte given in the Merriam – webster ( one of the most trusted online dictionaries) states, “it is any of a group of plants or plantlike organisms (such as algae and fungi) that lack differentiated stems, leaves, and roots and that were formerly classified as a primary division (Thallophyta) of the plant kingdom”. It is comprised of lichens, fungi and algae. The plant body has the absence of vascular system which means that there is no availability of the conducting tissues.

Some of the basic characteristics of thallophyta are mentioned below:

If we ever have a look into the broader aspect or division of the plant kingdom, thellaphyta comes at the lower most part. It does not possess a well – structured design of the body. It basically means that there is no structure of the plant body as others in the form of roots, stems or leaves. These plants are permanently aquatic and commonly termed as algae. However, in addition to the above mentioned segmentation of the plant kingdom, there is also a sub -division of this specific plant is available. Thallophyta is basically classified into two broad divisions; these are fungi and algae.

Fungi  : These are the achlorophyllous (as they are not able to produce chlorophyll) heterotrophic thallophytes. In order to overcome the handicap, there is the probability that very often the fungi may generate symbiotic connection with a cyanobacterium or an alga. Since the algae contain chlorophyll, it is able to produce the food by itself and in return the fungi shield the algae by providing it a safe environment and keep it safe from the UV rays. One of the important examples is lichen where two organisms are found to be acting in the form of a single unit. Some of the characteristics of fungi are:

Thallophyte are basically non – mobile organisms of polyphyletic group.

They are conventionally called as “lower plants” or “relatively small plants” or “thalloid plants”.

Their life cycle may be divided into diplohaplontic, diplontic or diploid.

Spirogyra is one of the most common and important examples of this.

Thallophyta is basically classified into two broad divisions; these are fungi and algae.

Algae  : These are the thalloids bearing chlorophyll. They are mostly aquatic plants and are autotrophic in nature. In addition to this, it is also observed that green algae are found to be forming a symbiotic network of connection with sloths. It is to be mentioned here that sloths are the native to Central America and South America’s lush tropical rainforests. It is because of this that the algae are given chance to flourish because the sloth fur creates a damp and moist environment for them. In return to this, the alga gives the sloth safety from the predators by giving it a chance of camouflage and also provides it extra nutrition. Spirogyra is one of the most common and important examples of this. Some of the basic characteristics of algae are:

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