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The brain is one of the most vital and magnificent organs in our body.

The brain is one of the most vital and magnificent organs in our body. It is also one of the most complexes. Our brain gives us awareness of our environment and awareness about ourselves, by processing a persistent stream of sensory data transmitted by the neurons. The brain controls the way our muscles move, it controls the secretions of our glands, it even controls our breathing and internal temperature. Every creative thought we have, the feelings we feel and the plans we create are developed by our brain. The brain’s neurons keep track of these memories, they keep track of every event in our lives. For all these functions to go on without any interruption, all parts of the brain are very important. We will be elaborating about two such parts now. They are the cerebellum and the cerebrum.

The cerebellum is a very important part of the brain that plays a vital role in practically all physical movement, especially in coordination. It is that part of the brain which helps a person drive, walk, run and even play ball. It also helps people with vision and eye movements. Problems with the cerebellum are not very common and they mostly involve movement and coordination difficulties. • The cerebellum is a division of the hindbrain. • The cerebellum is a component of the hindbrain(rhombencephalon) and is located beneath the cerebrum. • Its main functions are to maintain balance and posture and to coordinate muscle movements. • The cerebellum is an unpaired structure. • The cerebellum is known as the second largest part of the brain. • Anatomical lobes The Cerebellum is Separated into 3 Anatomical Lobes. They are: • The Anterior Lobe: the lobe that is involved in unconscious proprioception(the sense of the position of one’s own parts of the body, sometimes called the “sixth sense”). For example, we don’t always tell ourselves how or where our hand is placed, we simply know. This is unconscious proprioception. • The Posterior Lobe: also called the Neocerebellum is the part of the cerebellum involved in muscle coordination and muscle movements through the inhibition of involuntary muscle movements. This part of the cerebellum plays a vital role in fine motor coordination. • The Flocculonodular Lobe: This part of the cerebellum uses information about head movements to coordinate eye movements. Damage to this area can cause oculomotor problems such as nystagmus. They can also affect our visual tracking. This lobe is also involved in maintaining muscle tone and balance equilibrium. Hence damage to this lobe can also cause vertigo. • Zones The cerebellum is made of three cerebellar zones. Towards the midline of the cerebellum is the vermis. The intermediate zone is present on both the sides of the vermin. The lateral hemispheres are situated laterally to the intermediate zones. There is no visible difference between the lateral hemispheres and intermediate zones, the difference is simply functional. • The Cerebellum Can be divided on the Basis of its Functions as Well. It is Comprised of: 1. Cerebrocerebellum : it is the largest division, created by the lateral hemispheres. It is mostly involved in motor learning and planning movements. It gets information from the cerebral cortex and pontine nuclei in the form of impulses and sends outputs to the red nucleus and thalamus. This region also controls the coordination of muscle activation and is necessary for visually guided movements. 2. Spinocerebellum : it is made up of the intermediate zone and the vermis of the cerebellar hemispheres. It is involved in conducting body movements by permitting error correction. Proprioceptive information is also received by this part of the cerebellum. 3. Vestibulocerebellum : this part is the functional equivalent to the flocculonodular lobe. It is a part that is mostly involved in controlling balance and ocular reflexes, mainly fixation on a target. It receives information from the vestibular system and sends information back to the vestibular nuclei.

The cerebrum is a walnut-shaped part of the brain that has numerous folds and ridges, these folds and ridges are called the sulci and gyri respectively. These folds increase the surface area of the brain, more the number of folds, more the surface area. This makes the cerebrum the largest part of the brain. The longitudinal fissure is the structure that divides the cerebrum into two hemispheres, namely the right hemisphere and the left hemisphere. The right hemisphere takes control of the left side of the body and the left hemisphere controls the right side of the body. This happens easily because of the communication between the right and left hemispheres which are facilitated by the corpus callosum, the structure that is beneath the longitudinal fissure. • The cerebrum is a part of the forebrain(prosencephalon), and the region of the cerebrum is called the Telencephalon. • The cerebrum is a paired structure comprising of the right and left hemispheres. • The cerebrum is known as the largest part of the brain. • The cerebrum comprises the left and right cerebral hemispheres.

They are named after the skull bone that protects them. They are: 1. The Frontal Lobe: as the name suggests, it is anterior-most lobe that is involved in reasoning, logic, higher level cognition, expressive language, and motor skills. The motor cortex lies right behind the frontal lobe, next to the central sulcus(the sulcus that marks the boundary between the parietal and the frontal lobes. It also separates the somatosensory cortex from the motor cortex). Damage to this lobe can result in increased risk-taking, attention, socialization, and sexual habits. 2. The Parietal Lobe: this lobe is situated in the medial part of the brain. It helps in the processing of tactile sensations such as touch, temperature, pain, and pressure. A small part of the brain known as the somatosensory cortex is situated in this lobe, this cortex is necessary for the processing of all the body’s senses. 3. The Temporal Lobe: this lobe is located on the lower section of the brain. It is the lobe where the primary auditory cortex(the cortex which is necessary for sound and language interpretation) is situated. This lobe is highly involved information of ‘memories’ because this lobe is where the hippocampus is situated. Any harm to this lobe can result in problems related to language skills, memory, speech and sound perception. 4. The Occipital Lobe: it is the lobe that is involved in processing and interpreting visual stimuli and is situated at the back portion of the brain. The primary visual cortex is located in this lobe, this is the cortex involved in receiving and interpreting visual information. Damage to this cortex can cause visual problems, difficulty in differentiating colors and problems with recognizing words. These are the major differences between the cerebellum and the cerebrum, their size, functions, and structure are different from each other, yet highly important for our body to function accordingly.

1. Which among the below mentioned separates the somatosensory cortex from the motor cortex? A. Central sulcus B. Inferior frontal sulcus C. Callosal sulcus D. Calcarine sulcus 2. Which among the following is not a part of the cerebellum? A. Flocculonodular lobe B. Vermis C. Primary auditory cortex D. Neocerebellum • Write a short note on the cerebellum and its functions. • Write a brief note about the temporal lobe of the cerebrum.

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