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Test For The Presence Of Sugar Starch Proteins And Fats Detection In Suitable Plant And Animal Materials

To carry out appropriate tests to detect the presence of sugar(sucrose), starch, proteins, and fats in suitable animal and plant materials.

Nutrition is a source through which living entities obtain food for the body to get fueled with energy. Therefore the food we eat must be well-balanced with all the substances that are required by our body to perform daily activities, these substances are known as nutrients. Nutrients  nourish the body by releasing the energy required for the body’s growth. Some of the nutrients found in food are:

They are body-building nutrients which aid in the repair of damaged body parts and also in the growth of the body

These nutrients are reflected to be protective food. They protect us from diseases by providing resistance against germs that are known to cause diseases.

Carbohydrates are nutrients that provide energy to the body instantly. Fats are also energy-giving foods and store energy. Carbohydrates  contain starch, sugars, and fibres which consist of sugar molecules containing hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. Carbohydrates can be categorized into:

The presence of sucrose can be tested in a sample using Benedict’s test.

The colour of the solution colour from blur colour to green colour. From green colour, it finally changes to brick red or orange colour. This indicates that the solution contains glucose.

The presence of starch in the potato extract is indicated when the colour changes to a blue-black colour.

The presence of proteins in a sample can be detected by the following tests:

The solution in the test tube appears to be violet in colour. This indicates that the sample that is tested contains proteins. 2. Xanthoproteic Test

The sample contained in the test tube, which appeared to have yellow precipitate changes its colour to orange. This indicates that the sample contains proteins. 3. Million’s Test

The sample indicates the presence of proteins when the colour changes to pink.

The presence of fats in a sample can be detected by the following tests:

The presence of fat in the sample is indicated when pink colour droplets appear on the test tube. 2. Paper Spot Test

The spot where the peanut seeds are rubbed turns translucent. This indicates the presence of fats in the sample.

Q.1. List examples of simple carbohydrates. A.1.  Simple carbohydrates are present in the form of fructose in fruits, in the form of lactose in milk and in the form of sucrose in table sugar. Q.2. What are stachyose and raffinose? A.2.  They are examples of oligosaccharides and are categorized under complex carbohydrates. Q.3. What are peptide linkages? A.3.  Proteins are made up of a large number of amino acids that are linked together by specific linkages known as peptide linkages. The amino acids comprise of both carboxylic acids and an amino group. Q.4. What is the xanthoproteic test? A.4.  It is used to detect the presence of proteins that contain aromatic amino acid units. The benzene ring present in the  amino acid , upon heating, is nitrated to form a yellow nitro-compound. It switches to orange colour with the presence of an alkali. Q.5. What do fats contain? A.5.  They are complex molecules. Fats contain glycerol and fatty acids. Q.6. What is a Fehling’s Test used for? A.6.  It is used to detect the presence of aldehydes and reducing sugars. The Fehling’s solution is a deep blue coloured solution. This test is performed with glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose.

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