Find Your Free Essay Examples

Stimulates Pituitary gland to release gonadotropins

Stimulates Pituitary gland to release gonadotropins

Regulates heart rate and blood pressure

Development of sperms and male characteristics

Development of eggs and female characteristics

There are about 20 important hormones produced in animals that play a major role in the different metabolic processes occurring in the human body.

Hormones in animals are messengers that help in regulating body functions such as temperature, hunger, growth, development, reproduction, etc.

Hormones are chemicals secreted by various endocrine glands directly into the blood and transported to the respective organs, where they act by regulating various metabolic processes. The organ affected by the hormone is called the target organ. The target cells have specific receptors to recognize the respective hormones. There are two types of glands present in our body.

Hormones are secreted by  endocrine glands . Also, refer to the  Endocrine System

Here is a list of different Hormones, along with their functions and their respective glands.

Hormones control the functions of all the organs. They affect the diverse processes of growth and development, reproduction and sexual characteristics. Very small amounts of hormones can induce very prominent responses in the body. Most of the hormones are proteins or steroids. However, too much or too less of something is always dangerous. When a hormone produces too much or too little hormones, it results in hormonal imbalance. Also Read:  Placebo Effect

On the basis of chemical structure, hormones can be classified into the following:

These hormones comprise polypeptide chains of linked amino acids. The peptide hormones are synthesized and stored in the secretory vesicles. They are found in the cell membrane and are released from the parent cell through exocytosis. Examples include oxytocin and vasopressin or ADH (antidiuretic hormone), which are synthesized in the brain and released into the bloodstream from the posterior pituitary gland. This group also covers tiny proteins such as growth hormones that are synthesized by the pituitary and the large glycoproteins such as the FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) which is also synthesized by the pituitary. After being stored in the vesicles, a stimulus triggers a response causing it to release, e.g. insulin is secreted due to high blood glucose levels. These hormones are insoluble in lipids and soluble in water. The receptors are found on the target’s cell surface as they can not permeate through the plasma membrane of the cells.

These hormones are derived from cholesterol, lipid-derived hormones. They are produced from precursors on demand and are released from the parent cell through simple diffusion. These hormones bind themselves to the proteins while being carried in the blood and generally have the target response of causing induction of the new protein production. These hormones are the primary group of lipids hormones. They are usually alcohols or ketones chemically. E.g. Estrogen and testosterone, which are secreted by the female and male reproductive system respectively.  These hormones are water-insoluble. They stay for a longer period of time in comparison to the peptide hormones as they are carried by transport proteins in the blood. Example: The hormone Cortisol. It has a half-life ranging from 60-90minutes.

They are comparatively smaller molecules that are derived from tryptophan and tyrosine amino acids. The norepinephrine and epinephrine are secreted by the adrenal gland, they are commonly known as catecholamines. Melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland situated in the brain, which is responsible for controlling the sleep-wake cycle.

Hormones, which are responsible for female secondary sexual characteristics are known as female hormones. some of them are also produced naturally in male but in very less amount and are not dominant. They play a role in the fertility of a woman since they are more dominant in a female’s body. Listed below are female hormones:

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)