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So, the causes of mutation can be any of the below mentioned points

Central dogma of molecular genetics involves the conversion of DNA into RNA (through transcription) and protein synthesis (through translation). Mutations make the protein synthesis go wrong during translation or mistakes in DNA are present that result in abnormalities in bodies in the form of some diseases like sickle cell anaemia. So, the causes of mutation can be any of the below mentioned points

After knowing the mutation definition and causes of mutation, let’s learn about different mutation and its types.

When mutations occur at the level of chromosome, it is called chromosomal mutation. Chromosomes are made up of DNA and protein, are highly organized and have lots of genes on them. The human chromosome number is 46; 23 from an egg cell and 23 from a sperm cell. Similarly, fruit fly has 8 chromosomes, 4 comes from an egg cell and 4 comes from the sperm cell.

During meiosis, in fruit flies and other animals, meiosis makes sperm and egg cells that can have half the number of chromosomes as the organism. And sometimes, those chromosomes don’t separate completely. It is called nondisjunction resulting in an egg or sperm cell that has too many or too few chromosomes.

Genetic counselors work to help families that may be affected by genetic disorders; this cites the importance of studying mutations.

Mutation in biology can be defined as the changes or alteration in the nucleotide sequence of the genome of a living organism. It can take place in the DNA or RNA of any living organism including humans, animals, bacteria, fungi, protists and viruses. Different types of mutations are gene mutations and chromosomal mutations. Also, there can exist silent mutations where mutation takes place without a subsequent change in the amino acids or the function of the overall protein. Nonsense mutations also occur where mutations hold the sequence of amino acids in the final protein. Missense mutations are also known where two different amino acids are found within the produced protein, other than its original.

Gene mutations are one of the mutations here a mutation in DNA occurs, meaning change in one or more DNA bases and as a result, different proteins are produced that affect the traits of an organism. Substitution, insertion and deletion are the three types of causes that may cause genetic mutation.

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