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Plants may be divided generally into flowering plants and non-flowering plants.

Plants may be divided generally into flowering plants and non-flowering plants. Flowering plants are called angiosperms while gymnosperms are classified as non-flowering plants. Angiosperms are further categorized into Monocotyledon and Dicotyledon plants based on the presence of the embryo in the seed.

Monocotyledons (Liliopsida) are a flowering plant class which includes more than 75 000 species. Mostly, they are herbaceous. The class name derives from the seed structure, which has one cotyledon, with a terminal position. Monocotyledon seeds possess a well-developed endosperm. It usually stores starch and proteins, which are necessary to the plant’s initial growth. The Monocotyledon seed germination is typically hypogeal. The Monocotyledon leaves are simple, with isobilateral symmetry. They have straight veins, smooth edge, and long sheath, which covers the stem mostly. The stomata are distributed fairly over both leaf surfaces. There is no development of the main root so the root system is adventitious. The stem may be hollow or solid. The Vascular bundles are dispersed all over the stem. The stems and roots have no cambium and are unable to enlarge by diameter.

Dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida) are a class of flowering plants, containing more than 175,000 species of plants – from annual plants to trees. The Dicotyledons differ in the presence of two lateral cotyledons in each seed. Starch, fats, or proteins are stored in the cotyledons and are used for the growth of the plant before photosynthesis starts. The Dicotyledon seed germination is hypogéal or epigeal Simple or complex, the leaves have dorsiventral symmetry. They have net or reticulate venation, and are often jagged or dissected with irregular edges. The stomata are located on the leaves’ down side. tap root system is seen in dicotyledons The number of individual flower pieces is equal to or multiplied by four or five. The stems are solid. Vascular bundles in the stems are smaller than in the Monocotyledons and are (concentrically) placed in rings.

Monocotyledon: palm trees, paddy, maize, philodendron, Orchids etc. Dicotyledon: apple tree, tomato, roses, sunflower, begonias, oak, maple etc.

There are various characteristics to distinguish between dicotyledon and monocotyledon. They are

Monocots have long, narrow leaves with parallel veins (like grasses) arranging the parts of monocot flowers in threes or multiples of three. Dicots with branched veins have broad leaves. The parts of the dicot flowers are arranged in fours and fives or fours and fives multiples

Monocot plants have single-cotyledon seeds and parallel-veined leaves, widespread vascular bundles in the stem, the lack of a typical cambium, and an adventitious root system

If your plant is flowering, you can tell if the number of petals and other parts of the flora is a monocot or dicot. As seen in the flowers to the left, monocots have flower sections in threes or multiples of threes.

Dicot plants are characterized by double-cotyledon seeds, net or reticulate venation, vascular bundles in the rings (concentrically),typical cambium is present, and a tap root system

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• simple • with isobilateral symmetry • with parallel veins • smooth edge • stem is covered by long sheath • on both surfaces, stomato is distributed equally

• simple or complex • dorsiventral symmetry • net or reticulate venation • uneven edges, jagged or dissected. • Stomata – down surface of the leaves. •

• cambium is absent • unable to enlarge in diameter. • hollow or solid. • Vascular bundles are dispersed all over the stem.

• cambium is present • can enlarge in diameter. • They are solid. • Vascular bundles are located in rings (concentrically).

• main root is not developed • root system is adventitous. • Cambium is absent and cannot enlarge in diameter

• Tap root system • Cambium is present and can enlarge in diameter