It regulates several physiological processes such as metabolism and growth.
Growth hormone is a protein of about 190 amino acids that are synthesised and secreted by cells called somatotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland. It regulates several physiological processes such as metabolism and growth.
The growth hormone is released by the pituitary gland and affects the growth, bone density, muscles and lipid metabolism in children.
Somatropin and somatotropin are two different types of growth hormone. Somatotropin is formed naturally in animals whereas, somatropin is synthesized by recombinant DNA technology.
Hypersecretion of growth hormone causes gigantism in children and acromegaly in adults. Pituitary tumours are also caused due to hypersecretion of growth hormone in adults.
Hyposecretion of growth hormone causes dwarfism in children and changes the cholesterol levels, muscle mass and bone strength in adults.
The secretion of the growth hormone is regulated by the hypothalamus and mediators of growth hormone actions. Other factors include- growth hormone-releasing hormone, somatostatin (SRIF), growth hormone-releasing peptide (ghrerin), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I).
“Growth hormone is a peptide hormone produced by the pituitary gland, that stimulates development, growth, and regeneration.”
The growth hormone is produced by the anterior pituitary. It is made up of 191 amino acids that make a long single-chain polypeptide. It is synthesized in somatotropic cells found in the anterior pituitary gland. These cells also store and release the hormone. The growth hormone is responsible for the regulation of several physiological processes such as growth and metabolism. It is also used as a drug in animals and plants. Let us have a detailed look at the growth hormone function and its types. Also Read: Hormones
Growth hormones are of two types: Somatotropin – growth hormones are otherwise referred by this name and is formed in animals Somatropin – these are growth hormones that are in the synthetic form produced utilizing recombinant DNA technologies.
The growth hormone has the following effects:
There are two different types of physiological effects of growth hormones:
These are observed when the growth hormone binds with the receptor on the target cells. For eg., fat cells have growth hormone receptors which are stimulated by these hormones to break the triglycerides and suppress their ability to accumulate circulating fats.
These are mediated by the insulin-like growth factor. Several growth-promoting effects of the hormone are due to the insulin-like growth factor acting on its target cells.
The growth hormone has essential effects on proteins, carbohydrates and lipid metabolism.
The metabolic effect reflects increased protein synthesis and decreased protein oxidation.
Growth hormone stimulates triglyceride breakdown and adipocytes oxidation.
Growth hormone maintains blood glucose levels and it is believed to have anti-insulin activity, which suppresses the ability of insulin to take up glucose. Also read: Metabolism
Following are the important growth hormone function:
The formation of growth hormone is regulated by the releasing hormone called somatocrinin along with inhibiting hormone called somatostatin, which is released by the neurosecretory nuclei of the hypothalamus. These regulating hormones are liberated in the hypophysial portal blood that surmounts the pituitary gland . The release of a hormone in the pituitary is monitored by these two hormones that are affected by many external inhibitory factors. Various factors stimulate the release of growth hormone, which includes:
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