It is also known as programmed cell death or cellular suicide.
Apoptosis can be defined as a form of cell death in which a programmed sequence of cells dies without releasing harmful substances into the surrounding area. It is also known as programmed cell death or cellular suicide. This is the best-understood form of programmed cell death. It involves the death of a cell but benefits the organism as a whole. This is an orderly process in which the cell’s contents are packaged into small packets of membrane for garbage collection by the immune cells. It helps to maintain the balance in the body by removing cells during development and by eliminating potentially cancerous and virus-infected cells.
There are two types of apoptosis pathways
Cancer is also known as carcinogenesis. It is the result of the succession of genetic changes during which a normal cell is transformed into a malignant one while the evasion of cell death is one of the necessary changes in a cell that causes this malignant transformation. As in apoptosis, a large number of cells die which reduces the risk of cancer in an individual. If a cancer person’s body undergoes apoptosis it becomes easier for the diagnosis without any risk factor.
1.Why Does a Cell Undergo Apoptosis? Almost many cells in the human body have the capacity to undergo apoptosis. Generally, apoptosis is a general and most convenient way to remove cells that are not considered to be part of the living organism. Even then some cells are abnormal and could hurt the organism if they survive. Such kind of cells needs to be removed and is known as viral infections or DNA damage. Most of the cells in an adult organism may be deleted to maintain balance and to make way for the growth or formation of the new cells.
Apoptosis is caused by proteolytic enzymes called caspase, which causes cell death by clearing specific proteins in the cytoplasm and nucleus. These caspases exist in all types of cells as an inactive process, which is usually activated by cleavage by other caspases, producing a proteolytic caspase cascade. In general, the activation is triggered by the adaptor protein which brings multiple copies of specific processes also known as initiator processes. Sometimes cells are also damaged or stressed so they can also kill themselves by triggering procaspase aggregation and activation from within the cell.