It is a part of the larger cell cycle and has a direct role in cell reproduction.
Cell division can be defined as a process by which a cell distributes its genetic material and cytoplasm and gives rise to new daughter cells. It is a part of the larger cell cycle and has a direct role in cell reproduction. In well-developed organisms, there are two types of cell division observed, mitosis and meiosis. These are very complex processes which are carried out through different phases. However, if simplified, mitosis can be defined as the exact duplication of a cell where the daughter cells will have the same genetic information as the parent cell. In meiosis, the daughter cells will only have half of the genetic information of the original cell. The common end phase in both processes is cytokinesis and the division of the cytoplasm. We will discuss both types of cell division in this topic.
The two well-documented types of cell division are:
It is the type of cell division where one cell divides to produce two genetically identical daughter cells. A great majority of cell divisions that take place in our body is mitosis. The process is integral to an organism’s body growth and development and it takes place throughout the organism’s lifetime. For some-single-celled organisms such as yeast, mitotic cell division is the only way they can reproduce. In the following, we will learn about the mitotic process of cell division. The cell division phases of mitosis are:
Before mitosis begins, the cell is in a state called interphase and it copies its DNA and so the chromosomes in the nucleus consist of two copies which are called sister chromatids. In animals, the centrosome is also copied. Centrosomes control mitosis in animal cells. It should be mentioned here, that as plant cells do not have centrioles and centrosomes, and the microtubule organising centre regulates mitosis.
In meiosis, a single cell divides twice to produce four cells which contain half of the original amount of genetic material. It can be observed in sperm cells in males and egg cells in females. There are 9 meiotic cell division phases. These are discussed below:
The cell division cycle or the cycle is a series of events that takes place in a cell which causes the cell into two daughter cells. It consists of two primary phases
Interphase: It is an active phase between subsequent cell divisions. This consists of multiple phases. These are
M phase: Cell division takes place in this phase. It consists of 2 phases:
Cell division serves as a means of cell reproduction in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. In unicellular organisms, reproduction takes place through binary fission which is a type of mitotic division. In multicellular organisms, cell division assists in the formation of gametes which combine to produce organisms. Cell division also plays a role in the growth and development of an organism and repairs injuries.
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