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Induced mutation generally occurs at higher frequency than spontaneous mutation.

Mutation is a type of change that occurs in our DNA sequence, either by mistake or due to any environmental factors like UV light and cigarette smoke. Mutation which occurs by mistake is known as spontaneous  mutation and the mutation which occurs due external factors are called induced mutation. Induced mutation generally occurs at higher frequency than spontaneous mutation. Mutation mainly occurs because of chemical instability of purine and pyrimidine bases and this leads to change in DNA sequence.

Gene mutation is a change in DNA sequence because of instability in purine and pyrimidine base pairs. This sequence differs from the sequence which is found in most humans. Mutation disrupts normal development in the body, there are so many genetic disorders which happen due to gene mutation like blood cancer, skin cancer, etc and apart from this they also alter the function of essential protein, by changing gene instruction for making protein.

There are several types of Mutation occurring due to abnormal factors and they are:

Insertions, deletions, and duplications all can be called as frameshift mutations. InRepeat expansion:  Under this type of mutation nucleotide repeats are short DNA sequences that are repeated a number of times in a row.

There are so many reasons for mutation to occur

b)deletion c)duplication Answer: (a)

b)deletion c)duplication Answer: (b)

Ans. Mutation is a process under which there is a change in the structure of genes which results in various abnormalities in our body. And the agents which cause mutation are known as mutants. There are both external and internal factors which lead to mutation.

Ans. Based on factor Mutation is of two types:

Ans. Different types of mutation are:

A change or variations within the sequence of nucleotide bases which constitutes DNA, without a subsequent change in the amino acids or the function of the overall protein.

A nonsense mutation occurs when there is a change in the sequence of nucleotides and holds the normal sequence of amino acids in the final protein.

It is a type of point mutation, where two different amino acids are placed within the produced protein, other than its original.

Ans. Cause of mutation can be of two types either internal or external. Internal cause includes sudden change in base pair due to abnormal internal activities of the body,all these mutations lead to evolution and external cause include factors like UV-rays which leads to change in DNA sequence.

Ans. Under this type of mutation there is an addition or loss of DNA bases that changes a gene reading frame. A reading frame consists of groups of 3 bases that each code for one amino acid.

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