Hypocalcemia- This conditions define a below-normal level of calcium in plasma.
Tetany refers to a condition during which the nerves innervating a specific muscle becomes overstimulated and causes involuntary contractions of muscles called Spasms.Tetany is also referred to as Tetanic Seizures.
Hypocalcemia- This conditions define a below-normal level of calcium in plasma. Note, the basic concentration of calcium ions in a healthy adult is about 8-10.5 mg/dl in serum. Low level of free calcium levels in the plasma increases the depolarization of the neurons thereby increasing neuronal excitability.
(a) Decreased levels of parathormone- Parathormone(PTH) is a hormone released by the parathyroid gland(Glands present behind thyroid gland).PTH functions as maintaining serum calcium levels by exercising its effect on bone, kidneys and intestine. Basically, its main function is to maximize the calcium levels within the plasma. Now, this can be achieved by various methods. Firstly, calcium is oozed out from bone to plasma. Secondly, it can increase absorption of calcium present within the food through the intestine to maximize calcium within the plasma. Lastly, it maximizes the plasma calcium levels through increased resorption of calcium from renal tubules thereby increasing calcium levels in plasma and reducing it within the urine. Accidental damage to the parathyroid gland, autoimmune disorders, congenital defects can also lead to decreased PTH secretion. (b) Low vitamin D levels can also cause hypocalcemia as vitamin D helps in absorbing calcium. Low Vitamin D levels can be caused by lack of exposure to sunlight, malnutrition etc. (c) Other factors include loss of calcium because of the kidney and gastrointestinal diseases.
Calcium ion concentration plays a vital role in the muscle contraction in the following way :
If the levels of calcium decrease below normal, it increases the permeability of Na+ ions causing recurring depolarization and contractions. This condition is called tetany. Low calcium levels may be caused due to low parathormone levels.
Q1. Define Tetany Ans – Tetany refers to a condition during which the nerves innervating a specific muscle becomes overstimulated and causes involuntary contractions of muscles called Spasms.Tetany is also referred to as Tetanic Seizures. Q2. What are the Symptoms of Tetany? Ans – Includes spasms of the carpal(wrist) muscles, an extension in interphalangeal joints(joint present between bones of fingers of hands and toes of feet)
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Tetany is a symptom (muscle twitches, spasms and seizures) that occurs in the body
Tetanus is an infectious and noncommunicable disease.
May be caused due to various conditions such as hypocalcemia, Hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia and tetanus
Caused by Clostridium tetani. In this disease, the bacterium releases a neurotoxin which affects the central nervous system
Tetany may be linked with various health conditions and diseases like tetanus hypoparathyroidism etc.
This disease can lead to various manifestations or symptoms out of which tetany is one of them. Stiffness in the jaw muscles(lockjaw disease), fever, rapid heart rate(tachycardia) are some of the other manifestations included.