Flowers are the most attractive and the only reproductive part of a plant.
Flowers are the most attractive and the only reproductive part of a plant. They are the precious gifts of nature, which have a unique beauty and pleasant scents. Flowers undergo pollination to produce new seeds. Overall, flowers form one of the major parts in the morphology of a flowering plant. All vascular and flowering plants (angiosperms) bear flowers and according to the records, the flowering plants appeared around 140 million years ago. Altogether there are more than 400,000 species of flowering plants, also called angiosperms. Refer More: Morphology of Flowering Plants
The most significant parts of a flower include:
The petals and sepals are called the vegetative part of a flower, whereas the stamen and pistil are called the reproductive parts of a flower
Here is the L.S or the longitudinal section of a flower. In the above longitudinal section of a flower, the flower consists of both male and female reproductive parts.
Refer More: Flower and Inflorescence Let’s learn more in detail about the longitudinal section of a flower. Ovary The ductless reproductive gland of a flower, which plays a major role in the formation of seeds. This gland also functions as a storage of egg or the ovules. Style The adapted portion of the pistil, which is long and tube-like slender stalk. It functions by connecting stigma and the ovary, which contains the female egg cells called ovules. Stigma The adapted portion of the pistil, which is present at the uppermost part or receptive tip of carpels in the female reproductive parts of a flower. Pistil The inner, female reproductive organ flower is called the pistil. It mainly comprises three parts -stigma, style and ovary. All these three parts are collectively known as the pistil. Anther A yellowish, four-lobed sac-like structure, which is responsible for the production and storage of pollen grains. Filament A thread-like structure, attached to the anther and functions by aligning the anther in its place. Stamen It is the male reproductive part of a flower, which is also known as Androecium. It mainly comprises anther and filament. Petals This is a bright-coloured part of a flower, which plays a vital role during pollination by attracting the pollinating agents – bees, insects and birds for pollination. Colour of petals generally varies from plant to plant. Some plants have dark or bright-coloured petals, while some carry light or pale coloured petals. Sepals Sepals are the modified leaves of the flowering plants. They are green-coloured parts present beneath the petals, which protect the rising buds . Some flowers have fused petals-sepals, while a few have separated petals-sepals. A complete flower comprises four whorls: Calyx, Corolla, Stamens and Carpels. Calyx It is the first and the outermost whorl of a flower, which comprises units called sepals, a tiny leaf at the base of the flower. During the bud stage, the calyx functions by protecting the flower by enclosing the complete flower. It also protects the flower whorls from mechanical injuries and desiccation. Corolla It is the second whorl of a flower, which consists of many numbers of petals. These petals are sometimes fragrant and are coloured, thin and soft that would help in the process of pollination by attracting the pollinators- animals, birds and insects. It also functions by protecting the reproductive parts of a flower. Stamens Stamen is also known as the third whorl of the flower and is the male reproductive part. It consists of a filament, which is a thread-like structure with a circular structure, present on the top. Pollen is produced by the anther, which contributes to the male reproductive process of the plant. All the stamens do not bear fertile anthers. Carpels The carpel is the fourth whorl of the flower, which is present in the centre. Each carpel is composed of stigma, style and ovary. The carpels contain the pistil, the female reproductive part of the flower. Also Refer: Flower This article concludes an introduction to the flower and its longitudinal section.
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