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During the process of evolution, the formation of new and distinct species is defined as speciation.

During the process of evolution, the formation of new and distinct species is defined as speciation. New species form by two major mechanisms viz sympatric speciation and allopatric speciation. The allopatric speciation is also known as geographical speciation. The difference in environmental factors causes the change in allopatric  speciation . In sympatric speciation, the evolution of new species takes place from a single ancestral species. Here we are discussing various differences between allopatric and sympatric speciation.

The physical isolation of the population due to the extrinsic barrier is called allopatric speciation

The evolution of new species from one ancestral species living in the same habitat is called sympatric speciation

Polyploidy or changes in feeding pattern, etc.

Takes place through geographic isolation

Squirrels in the Grand Canyon, Darwin’s Finches, etc.

Due to polyploidy in plants such as wheat, Tobacco, maggot flies born on apples and hawthorns, etc.