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Dogs are carnivore domesticated animals that belong to the family Canidae.

Dogs are carnivore domesticated animals that belong to the family Canidae. Dogs have an average lifespan of 10-15 years. Dogs have accompanied humans for almost 20000 years. Some scientists believe that dogs and wolves share ancestors. But evolution has led the dogs and wolves to develop in their separate ways. The recent wolves are not much related to the wolves that were first domesticated hence, we can arrive at the conclusion that the direct ancestors of the dogs are extinct. Dogs are the first species amongst animals that were domesticated. The term dog is coined to the whole of their species. An adult female dog who is capable of bearing pups is termed as a bitch and the adult male dog who is capable of reproducing offspring is known as a stud. The immature offspring are known as puppies before they reach their adulthood. The term litter is coined to a group of puppies that are born out of a single gestational period from the female dog. Anatomy of the Dog Dogs are considered one amongst the ferocious animals. Dogs have highly developed sensory capabilities, unlike humans. According to a scientific study, dogs are capable of seeing the Earth’s magnetic field. Dogs are one among the mammals that are considered predators. They have a strong cardiovascular system that supports speed, pounding, and endurance. They have sharp teeth for hunting and tearing. Dogs have a powerful muscular body and their wrist bones are fused like many other scavenger animals. However, with developed science and technology many varieties of the dogs are bred some of which cannot survive in the wild unlike the nature of their species and are completely considered domesticated. Different varieties of dogs measure and weigh differently. A dog can weigh ranging from 20 pounds to 80 pounds depending upon which breed they belong to. Since dogs are warm-blooded creatures and come into the category of mammals, their body comprises organ systems like respiratory, digestive, reproductive, etc as of other mammals. Additionally, they have an integumentary system which is the skin and fur that covers the animal’s body and protects it from various weather conditions. There are two types of coats when it comes to domestic dogs. The first one is the ‘double’ coat variety that is found in dogs that basically belong to the colder climate areas. The double coat is made up of a guard hair on top that protects the animals by preventing the entry of moisture followed by an underfur within that which protects the animals from drastic cold weather. And the other variety is the ‘single’ coat variety which has just the topcoat only. Generally, the coat of the dog reveals the health of the animal. And the coat is maintained by proper nutrition. Premature greying of hair is not only found in humans but it is also found in dogs less than 2 years of age. The tails of dogs generally describe their emotional state. The dogs have various shapes of tails like a sickle, straight up, docked, curl, etc. This helps them to reveal their emotional state to others. Dogs have a good intellectual capacity which enables them to understand soon and in the case of domestic dogs, it helps them to get trained soon by their master. Reproduction in Dogs  The reproduction in Dogs, wolves, and other canine species is called Canine reproduction. Both female and male dogs attain sexual maturity as early as 10-12 months of age. In a few larger breeds, to attain sexual maturity takes more than 2 years of age. When the female begins to develop physiological changes due to the effect of reproductive hormones, they will be physically ready to bear the pups. This is known as the Estrous cycle. This cycle is the way to tell the female dog is ready for copulation. In dogs, the fertilization occurs 3-4 days after ovulation. The embryo if formed attaches to the uterus around 12-15 days post ovulation. Once the embryo attaches to the uterus the heartbeat can be detected 7-9 days after that. In each gestational cycle, the average number of pups vary from 4-6. After fertilization, the female dog will bear the litter for approximately 60-70 days. The length of the gestational period varies in every dog. And the number of pups in each litter also varies when it comes to a different breed of dogs. A much larger variety of dogs who cannot mount the female, artificial insemination is performed to conceive the female. Neutering  In many countries, to control the population of dogs they are sterilized. This process of sterilization is referred to as Neutering. In this process, the testicles are removed in the case of males and in females, the ovaries and uterus are removed. This, in turn, controls their sexual drive and the animals lose their capability to reproduce thus controlling the population. The ASPCA (American Society for the prevention of cruelty to animals) decided to neuter the variety of dogs in which further breeding needs to be controlled rather than killing the animals. Those puppies already born are euthanized (putting the animal to death) to reduce the population. Four Stages of a Dog’s Life Cycle The four stages of the life cycle of the dog include puppy, adolescent, adult, and senior.

[Image will be Uploaded Soon] Diseases in Dogs Diseases in dogs are acquired through contact with the surroundings when they are taken for a walk to the park or if they come in contact with dogs who suffer from illnesses. It is required to take them to the veterinary doctors if any unusual signs or symptoms are noticed. The type of diseases that are considered as deadly in dogs are:

Ans: When it comes to pet dogs, the common practice followed is breeding within close relatives which includes half and full siblings as well. When this happens, there will be largely the expression of Homozygous Deleterious Recessive Mutation.

Ans: Most of the time the dogs are bred between 12-14 days after the onset of proestrus. After which, mating every other day for at least 2-3 matings is required to successfully make a bitch pregnant.

Ans: The dog undergoes 4 stages which are: puppy, adolescents, adult, and senior.

Ans: Spaying is a surgical procedure that is also called an ovariohysterectomy. In this procedure, the ovaries and uterus are completely removed to sterilize the female dog making them incapable to bear pups.

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