In the above tabular chart, we discussed the difference between plasmid and chromosomal DNA, now we shall see the existing similarities between the two.
Ans. Plasmid DNA and chromosomal DNA, both, contain genetic material, however many differences exist between the two. The former kind is present only in bacterial cells whereas the other is present in bacterial cells as well as eukaryotic cells. Plasmid DNA is called extrachromosomal DNA and its genetic material is not too vital for hereditary purpose, whereas the latter has a great importance in carrying genetic information from one generation to another. Plasmid DNA is used as vectors in biotechnological studies and has importance in molecular biology. It also provides resistance from pesticides, insecticides and herbicides to the bacterial cells. Plasmid DNA are self replicative whereas the chromosomal DNA uses the genome for replication.
Ans. Plasmid DNA is linear in shape whereas chromosomal DNA can be linear or circular in shape. Naturally, plasmid DNA is present as a tightly supercoiled circle to allow itself to fit inside the cell. Chromosomal DNA is often observed as X-shaped structures.
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It is single-stranded or double-stranded.
It may be linear or circular in shape.
Plasmid DNA is naked without the presence of histone proteins.
It is coated with histone proteins.
Plasmids are separated from bacterial genomic DNA.
Chromosomal DNA freely floats in the cytoplasm of bacterial cells while in eukaryotic organisms, they are found inside the nucleus.
It doesn’t carry any vital gene which is necessary for the cells. However, plasmids contain genes which provide benefits to bacteria including antibiotic/herbicide/pesticide resistance, drought tolerance, etc.
It carries multiple genes which are vital for cells to carry genetic information and hereditary properties. These are important for the well being and survival of organisms.
It has self-replicating properties without the main genome help.
It replicates with the genome only.
It doesn’t act as a genetic factor and is often termed as extrachromosomal DNA.
Chromosomal DNA acts as a genetic factor.
Introns are absent in plasmid DNA, only exons are present.
It comprises both introns and exons.
It is smaller than chromosomal DNA.
It is larger in size as compared to the plasmid DNA.
Their number in a cell varied from 1-1000.
Their number varies depending upon species.
It is transferred by horizontal gene transfer.
It is transferred by cell division.
It has a higher rate of replication.
It has a comparatively lower rate of replication.
It is important for recombinant DNA technology.
A crucial technique used in molecular biology is the isolation of plasmid DNA which is an essential step for varied procedures like cloning, transfection, DNA sequencing and gene therapy. Here, isolation of plasmid DNA of the highest purity is required.
It has a great importance to be used as a vector in biotechnology.
It is important for reading genetic information.
Vital for all living beings, chromosomal DNA is essential for inheritance, coding for proteins and genetic information for life and all processes helping in cell development and reproduction too.