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Calcium is an essential element in our body.

Calcium is an essential element in our body. It plays many important roles including conduction of ions in the body. When calcium levels go down below the average levels in blood serum, it is known as Hypocalcemia. Thus, hypocalcemia is low calcium levels in the liquid part of the blood which is the fluid and solute composition of the blood. The normal range of calcium levels in a healthy individual is 2.1-2.6 mmol/L. Calcium levels below 2.1 are considered as Hypocalcemia. Mildly low levels are often harmless and asymptomatic and can be treated with medication. Hypocalcemia primarily causes Tetany, which is spontaneous tonic muscle contractions that occur due to increased neuronal excitability taking place as a result of low extracellular fluid calcium concentration. This, in turn, reduces the threshold for excitation of the neural tissue. In brief, Hypocalcemia or hypomagnesemia (low levels of extracellular fluid magnesium) reduce the amount of depolarization necessary to induce an increase in sodium conductance and depolarize nerve cells.

The main causes of Hypocalcemia are as follows:

Generally, mild low levels of Hypocalcemia are asymptomatic. But harmfully low calcium levels may show symptoms like:

Because hypocalcemia is mostly asymptomatic, the main causes of hypocalcemia should be investigated and corrected when the symptoms gradually show up.  The decreased level of magnesium in blood should be altered by increasing the intake of magnesium-rich food. This will also prevent hypomagnesemia. Any increase in calcium will become transient without replenishing magnesium in the body.

Ans: When calcium levels go down below the average levels in blood serum, it is known as Hypocalcemia. Thus, hypocalcemia is low calcium levels in the liquid part of the blood which is the fluid and solute composition of the blood. The normal range of calcium levels in a healthy individual is 2.1-2.6 mmol/L. Calcium levels below 2.1 are considered as Hypocalcemia. Mildly low levels are often harmless and asymptomatic and can be treated with medication.

Ans: Hypocalcemia is a condition of low levels of ECF calcium. Therefore, the total serum calcium concentration of less than 2.2 mmol/L is an indication of the condition. However, low plasma protein can lower total calcium but it does not affect the ionized serum calcium. So, ionized calcium should be estimated based on albumin concentration to diagnose appropriately.

Ans: Generally mild low levels of Hypocalcemia are asymptomatic. But harmfully low calcium levels may show symptoms like:

Ans: Risk factors for Hypocalcemia include:

Moreover, calcium deficiency is rarely seen in children or teens as compared to adults or people of old age.

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