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Biotechnology is widely used in medicine, agriculture, and food science.

Biotechnology can be defined as the field of biology that makes use of the living systems and organisms to develop technologies and products that help improve the lives of people and the health of our planet. It is technology applied to biology by harnessing cellular and biomolecular processes to make products that make the quality of life better for people and for the Earth. Biotechnology is widely used in medicine, agriculture, and food science. Medical biotechnology improves the health of humans, agricultural biotechnology focuses on the betterment of agricultural produce, and food biotechnology modifies the genes of food sources that include plants, animals, and microorganisms. Biotechnology is a developing field of science by the use of biological processes of living organisms that have been in practice for more than 6000 years. Products like bread, cheese, alcohol are examples of that. Therapeutic protein and drug production, production of genetically engineered crops are all prominent areas of Biotechnology.

There are two main types of Biotechnology-

Medical Biotechnology uses living cells and cell materials to develop efficient ways of maintaining human health. It broadly focuses on finding a cure, prevention, and causes of diseases. It involves the use of these tools for understanding human cell biology, pathogens, and human response to pathogens. It also involves a DNA study to know more about genetic diseases and how to cure them. Medical biotechnology also studies the genetic make-up of cells and alters them with tools to develop beneficial products for mankind. Example- Insulin. Vaccines and antibiotics which are in use today are all made by using biotechnology. Examples-

This field makes the use of tools of biotechnology to develop genetically modified plants with two motives. One is to increase the yield and the second is to add an additional feature to the plant for profitable purposes. Genetic crosses can be invented by studying the genes of certain species of plants and thus, they can be altered to withstand weather or other physical conditions. Which the plant otherwise cannot withstand due to the presence of certain genes. Examples-

The most important applications of Biotechnology are as follows-

It is the most useful application wherein nutrients are infused into the food in situations of aid. Such food provides heavy nutrition which is necessary for such situations. Example- Golden rice- it is the infusion of beta carotene into the rice making it rich in Vitamin A, which is easy to synthesize by the body.

It means developing crops that can be grown in various abiotic stress conditions like saline soil, cold, drought, etc. In regions of excessive cold, abiotic stress resistance has proved to be very useful.

It is the application of biotechnology for industrial purposes like fermentation. It ranges from the productions of cellular structure to biological elements. The products include alcohol, wine, detergents, various beauty products, etc.

Spider’s web is found to have the highest tensile strength. They can withstand more tensional force. This property of the spider web makes them very useful for the production of silk. This silk can be used to produce a variety of materials like body armors and bulletproof jackets. It may also be used to replace Kevlar. With this initiative genes from spiders are picked and infused in the goat genome. These goats produced silk proteins in their milk. Thus, the production of silk via goat milk is a lot easy to process and handle.

Our future generations are threatened by the depleting resources of oil. Biotechnology has helped make a breakthrough by introducing alternate fuel sources. Not only these are useful and can be produced on a large scale in less time but they are environment friendly too. Thus, it widely helps in energy production worldwide.

It is also applied in the healthcare sector to develop pharmaceuticals that otherwise are problematic to produce by conventional means due to purity concerns. Thus, Biotechnology is a branch of science which not only makes modern life easier but also solves many problems of the humankind and environment.

Ans. Following are the benefits of Biotechnology-

Ans. Industrial applications include the fermentation process for the production of various food products like cheese, bread, alcohol, wine, beer. It is also used in the production of detergents, health care products, etc.

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