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Bacteriophages are the viruses that infect bacteria.”

“Bacteriophages are the viruses that infect bacteria.”

A bacteriophage is a virus that infects a bacterial cell and reproduces inside it. They vary a lot in their shape and genetic material. A bacteriophage may contain DNA or RNA. The genes range from four to several thousand. Their capsid can be isohedral, filamentous, or head-tail in shape.

The bacteriophage consists of a polyhedral head, a short collar and a helical tail.

Bacteriophage exhibits two major types of life cycles:

In the Lytic Cycle, a bacteriophage infects a  bacteria  and kills it to release progeny virus. This cycle takes place in the following steps: Adsorption The bacteriophage attaches itself on the surface of bacteria. This process is known as adsorption. The tips of the tail fibres attach to specific receptors on the surface of the bacterial cell. Penetration The tail sheath of the phage contracts after adsorption. The base plate and the tail fibres are attached firmly to the bacterial cell. The phage muramidase weakens a part of the cell wall and the hollow core is pushed downwards through it. The DNA is injected inside the bacterial cell. Synthesis of Phage Components The components of new  virus  particles are produced after the nucleic acid is released into the cell. The sub-units of phage head, tail and late protein then appear. The synthesis is carried out by specific enzymes called early proteins. The nucleus and the cytoplasm also contain the components of a phage. Maturation and Assembly On maturation, the head and tail protein of phage DNA assemble and each component of phage DNA is surrounded by a protein coat. Ultimately, the tail structures are added forming a virion. Release The infected bacterial cell is lysed releasing the progeny phages. The phage enzymes weaken the cell wall of bacteria during replication.

In this, the phage becomes integrated with the chromosome of the host cell and is known as a prophage. This prophage is transmitted to progenies at the time of cell division during reproduction in bacteria. The bacteria carrying a prophage without being lysed is called “lysogenic bacteria”. When the lysogenic bacteria multiply, the prophage might be lost due to excision. Also Read:  Virology