An earthworm can be defined as a segmented worm that belongs to the phylum Annelida.
An earthworm can be defined as a segmented worm that belongs to the phylum Annelida. They are terrestrial invertebrates and are usually found in moist soil and feed on organic matter. They are also called farmer’s friends Because the faecal deposit of worms helps to increase the fertility of the soil and the burrowing helps the soil to aerate properly, increases fertility and burrowing helps in proper aeration of the soil.
The following diagram of the earthworm depicts its morphological features:- Image will be uploaded soon
Earthworms possess a segmented tube-shaped body that is reddish-brown in colour. The body is precisely divided into small segments. The dorsal side holds a dark line of blood vessels whereas the ventral side comprises of genital openings The interior end is distinguished by the mouth and the prostomium, which is the organ that helps in the process of burrowing. A glandular tissue called clitellum is present in the segments 14-16 of a matured earthworm. This helps us to distinguish the mouth and the tail ends. The body is said to be distinguished in three segments, clitellum- prepatellar, clitellar and postclitellar. The earthworm has the capability of carrying both male as well as female sex organs. Four pairs of spermathecal apertures are accommodated in the segments 5-9. The fourteenth segment accommodates Eid the female genital pore whereas a pair of male genitals is held in the 18th segment. Except in the first, last and clitellum segments, an S-shaped Setae is present which contributes to the locomotion in the earthworm.
The body of the earthworm is externally covered by a thin layer of non-cellular cuticle two muscle layers and the coelomic epithelium, which is the inner layer, is sheathed above which lies a layer of the epidermis and on the top lies the cuticle. The epithelium comprises glandular columnar epithelium, which is present in a single layer.
Earthworms are said to be monoecious or hermaphrodite that is both male and female reproductive organs are present in the same individual, but self-fertilization does not occur as the male and female reproductive organs do not mature at the same time. When the testis mature earlier than the ovaries, this condition is called protandry. Hence cross-fertilization takes place which is followed by cocoon formation. Following listed below are the parts of the male reproductive system:-
The Female Reproductive System Consists of :
Following is the Diagrammatic Representation of The Reproductive System of an Earthworm:- Image will be uploaded soon
The earthworms exhibit a closed type of blood vascular system, in this type of system the blood is confined to heart and blood vessels.
The activities performed by an earthworm are under the control of the well developed and concentrated nervous system. It is segmented just like the rest of its body. Following are its components:-
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