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1. Nutrition 2.

1. Nutrition 2. Metabolism 3. Respiration 4. Transportation 5. Reproduction 6. Metabolism 1.  Nutrition 

Photosynthesis in Autotrophs/Plants

The above equation shows the chemical reactions that happen during photosynthesis. Chlorophyll is existing in structures called chloroplasts. These organelles are disc-shaped ones that are present in the mesophyll cells of the leaves. These help to take in the sunlight within the plant. As the carbon dioxide CO 2  enters the plant through the stoma, the light energy transforms into chemical energy, by the division of the water molecules (H 2 O) of the plants. Simple carbohydrates are formed in this process. (O 2 ) Oxygen is a byproduct of the photosynthesis process.

One vital aspect of nutrition in human is the digestion of food. Digestion is the procedure where complex food substances are broken down or transform into simpler food molecules. It happens through a proper set of organs and secretions from other related organs. Digestion is a vital process, as we humans cannot take in the complex food particles directly.

The food that we eat gives us the energy to do work and also supports cell growth and cell repair. (We know that our body is made up of several cells and tissues) then it is the all-important blood that completes this function.

• Water travel into the root from the soil and then slowly it moves into the root xylem, making a column of water, which is gradually pushed upwards.

• Vaporization of water molecules from the cells of a leaf generates a suction process, which pulls water from the xylem cells of roots; this route keeps going on. • The loss of water H2O in the form of vapor from the leaves of the plant is called transpiration. • Transpiration, likewise, assist in the absorption and upward movement of minerals and water dissolved in it from roots to the leaves. • Transpiration also helps in temperature regulation. • The transportation of soluble products of photosynthesis is called translocation, which happens in the part of the vascular tissue called phloem. • Along with photosynthesis products, the phloem also transports amino acids and other materials, which are eventually delivered to roots, fruits, seeds, and growing organs.

Blood is a vital fluid connective tissue. It is mostly composed of plasma and blood cells. There are three types of blood cells, known as, red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and blood platelets. The red blood cells RBCs have hemoglobin, an iron-containing complex protein. The WBC white blood cells are the cells that aid in fighting diseases and attack any foreign bodies in the blood. The blood platelets are the ones that support in clotting of blood.

The human heart is a fully muscular organ, which has four chambers or section. The two upper chambers or section known as the right atrium and the left atrium, and the two lower chambers or section known as the right ventricle and left ventricle. The right atrium and the right ventricle together can be called the right heart. The left atrium with the left ventricle together may be called the left heart. All the chambers or section of the heart are divided by muscular walls called septum .

 Veins transport deoxygenated blood to the right side of the heart whereas arteries transport oxygenated blood away from the heart to the different area of the body.

It plays an important role in the exchange process of nutrients and gases that happens through blood. Any excess fluid left behind in the cells and tissues is collected by the lymph and is drained into the veins, which carry blood.

The complex of physical and chemical processes is essential to create and transform substances into energy that is available for use by a plant organism. Plant metabolism is determined by the autotrophic nature of plants, the importance that they must obtain carbon and other minerals to meet their supplies for the growth and development of plants. The available resources to plants are simple, in the custom of inorganic nutrients, light, water(H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2), but there are also often in a limited source. Plant metabolism displays flexibility that is not observed in other higher organisms. This shows the sessile nature of plants and their incapability to escape specific environmental situations, stresses, or predation. For cell maintenance and growth, the plant needs a range of organic compounds, containing nucleic acids, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and other natural products. Although certain of these compounds are produced by metabolic pathways that are simple to a breadth of organisms, much of plant metabolism is exclusive.

Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are the main constituents of foods and serve as fuel molecules for the human body. The digestion (breaking down into minor pieces) of these nutrients present in the alimentary tract and the ensuing absorption (entry into the bloodstream) of the digestive end products make it potential for tissues and cells to convert into the potential chemical energy of food into useful work.

The key absorbed end products of food digestion are monosaccharides, mainly glucose; monoacylglycerol and long-chain fatty acids (from lipids); and minor peptides and amino acids (from protein). Once they are in the bloodstream, different cells can absorb these nutrients. We have long known that these three classes of the molecules are fuel sources for human metabolism, yet it is a simple misconception that human cells use only glucose as a foundation of energy. This misinformation can arise from the way most textbooks clarify energy metabolism, emphasizing glycolysis (the metabolic pathway for glucose dilapidation) and neglecting fatty acid or amino acid oxidation.

The leaves of plants have minute pores on their surface which are called stomata. The exchange of gases in the leaves throughout respiration takes place with the help of stomata.

This occurs as follows: Oxygen from the air arrives into a leaf through stomata and reaches all the cells by the method of diffusion. This oxygen in a leaf is used for respiration in cells. The carbon dioxide formed is diffused out from the leaf into the air through the same stomata.

The roots of a plant take up air from the spaces amid the soil particles.  Root hairs are in constant touch with the air present in the soil particles. Oxygen from the air in soil particles diffuse into root hair and spread all the cells of the root where it is utilized in respiration. Carbon dioxide made in the cells of the root during respiration goes out through the same root hair by the method of diffusion.

From the above figure, it is now assumed that in humans, aerobic respiration takes place. But, remember that in a crisis situation, anaerobic respiration can also take in some muscle cells, to continue the life processes. The human respiratory system contains mainly of a pair of lungs, trachea, bronchi, and alveoli. Air enters the body from the nostrils. They travel through an air passage known as the nasal passage. From here, it enters into the pharynx and larynx. The larynx is known as the voice box. From the larynx, the air then passes to the trachea, from where it enters the lungs. The trachea has rings of cartilage that prevent the failure of the trachea when the air is not present.

When a vegetative piece of the original plant such as root, stem or leaf is tangled in producing an offspring, it is known as ‘Vegetative Reproduction in Plants.’ It is often called a process of ‘Survival’ and expansion of Biomass.

The various kinds of Asexual Vegetative Reproduction in Plants are

The type of asexual reproduction where a new organism develops from a bud or outgrowth due to cell division at one specific site is called budding.

Fragmentation in plants is a method of asexual reproduction or cloning in which an organism is splitting into fragments. Each of these fragments develops into mature, fully grown characters that are clones of the original organism.

Reproduction via spores includes the scattering of the spores by water or air. Reproductive spores produce into multi-cellular haploid individuals or sporelings.

Vegetative Propagation is a type of asexual reproduction in which new plants are made from roots, stems, leaves, and buds Sexual Reproduction in Plants:

For sexual reproduction of plants, is the interaction between the male and female species is essential. The offspring’s’ genetic structure is not equal but resulting from the combination of parent plants.

Reproduction in human beings is by sexual reproduction where both the male and female gametes fertilize to produce an embryo.

The testes are the main organs of male reproduction. They are in charge of producing the male gamete called the sperm by a method called spermatogenesis. This happens in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. The testes are also in charge of secreting the male reproductive hormone known as testosterone. It consists of testes, sperm duct, prostate gland, urethra, and penis

The female reproductive system in humans is placed entirely within the pelvic cavity. It contains the following structures: Ovaries, Fallopian tubes, Uterus, Cervix, Vagina, and Urethra.The egg is produced under the impact of both female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone. This process is called Oogenesis.

The process of Fertilisation and Further Development

The male sperms are put in the female body by the process known as sexual intercourse. Once the gametes are deposited in the vagina, they need to pass upwards to reach the egg that is free from the ovaries and picked up by the fallopian tubes. When the gametes meet the egg, it needs to penetrate through its layers to effect fertilization. Both the Egg and the Sperm fertilize and make the diploid zygote

Elimination of toxic and waste substances from the body is known as excretion.

There is a huge difference in the structure and arrangement of plants and animals. Photosynthesis takes place in plants, in the existence of sunlight. This chemical reaction gives growth to oxygen, which is a gas. It diffuses with the help of the stomata or the openings in the leaves. Any extra water that is existing in plants gets vaporized through the transpiration procedure.

Another stimulating feature here in plants is that certain of the plant wastes are stored in cellular vacuoles, in leaves that fall off. Certain other waste materials are stored in the xylem, like resins and gums. The excretory system in Human Beings

This is a well-built and complex system that takes care of removing the wastes from the human body. This is an important function that guides in the smooth operation of the human body. Kidneys are the key organs of the excretory system in human beings. Ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra along with blood vessels are the other constituents present. The urine that is made in the kidneys is passed through the ureters to the urinary bladder. It is ejected out through the urethra.

But, a point to be remembered is that skin and lungs, also have a part to play in eliminating waste materials from the body. The sweat glands in the skin support in the excretion of small volumes of water, salts, and urea. Lungs help in getting free of carbon dioxide through the respiration method.

The presence of life on the planet earth is mostly based on specific functions and processes. There are several basic vital processes which are important for an organism to remain healthy and to maintain the proper functioning of the body organ system, which all are essential for survival. These basic important activities achieved by an organism are called as life processes. Altogether there are six life processes which calculate the condition of life. Significant life processes are nutrition, transportation, metabolism, respiration, reproduction, and excretion.